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Adapting Forex Strategies To Brazilian Economic Trends

Adapting Forex Strategies To Brazilian Economic Trends

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By Ioan Batrancea Ioan Batrancea Scilit Google Scholar 1, * , Larissa Batrancea Larissa Batrancea Scilit Google Scholar 2 , Malar Maran Rathnaswamy Malar Maran Rathnaswamy Scilit Google Scholar 1 , Tula Scilit Google Horia. Scholar 1 , Gheorghe Fatacean Gheorghe Fatacean Scilit Google Scholar 1 and Mircea-Iosif Rus Mircea-Iosif Rus Scilit Google Scholar 3

National Institute for Research Development in Construction, Urbanism and Sustainable Territorial Development “URBAN INCERC”, 117 Calea Floresti, 400524 Cluj-Napoca, Romania

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Received: 29 October 2020 / Revised: 8 December 2020 / Accepted: 10 December 2020 / Published: 14 December 2020

Each country designs its own scheme to achieve green finance and, in general, credit is considered a fundamental source of greening of financial systems. The novelty of this study lies in the fact that we examined green finance initiatives in the USA, Canada and Brazil by focusing on main components of the financial systems before, during and after the 2008 global financial crisis. Through panel data analysis conducted on observations spanning the period 1970–2018, we examined variables such as domestic credit of banks, domestic credit of the financial sector, GDP, N

Emissions and the added value of agricultural, forestry and fishing activities. According to our findings, domestic credit from banks was insufficient to obtain green finance. Namely, to increase economic growth while reducing global warming and climate change, the financial sector should assume a greater role in the funding of green investments. Moreover, our results showed that domestic credit from the financial sector contributed to green finance, while CO

Adapting Forex Strategies To Brazilian Economic Trends

Emissions remained a challenge to limit global warming to the 1.5 °C level. Our empirical study supports the idea that economic growth together with policies targeting climate change and global warming can contribute to green finance. On top of that, governments should strive to design sustainable fiscal and monetary policies that promote green finance.

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The phenomena of climate change and global warming are challenging economies around the world to implement major shifts in the way they achieve economic performance. Therefore, sustainable development appears to be a relevant tool to be used for this purpose. Nevertheless, achieving sustainable development has also become demanding in economies these days due to inherent contradictions between development and environment. To begin with, there is no economic development without environmental degradation. On the one hand, agricultural production improves food security and reduces hunger. On the other hand, intense agricultural production leads to more greenhouse gas effect, which in turn increases global warming. According to one of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations, the end of world hunger must be achieved by 2030. Yet the global population fighting hunger reached 821 million by 2017, with one in nine people struggling for basic nutrition [1] . In addition, climate change has seriously affected agricultural production in recent years.

Since 2014, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has supported the idea of ​​creating a sustainable financial system with the aim of mobilizing capital for sustainable development and achieving a green and inclusive economy [2]. One strategy that stands out is green finance. The level of national financial development shapes and promotes green finance through different capital sources and financial institutions. According to the UNEP, three areas would be of great importance for green finance: the prevention of illegal practices; expanding opportunities of green investments; and discover solutions and trade-offs.

At the global level, developing economies face serious challenges in mobilizing capital related to green investments. For this category of countries, one source of external capital flows is represented by foreign direct investment (FDI), which generally targets projects related to energy, waste, water and agricultural development, and should (ideally) be focused on the long term be. Besides FDI, other sources of external capital flows are concessional loans from international financial institutions, long-term commercial debt, aid and remittances. Another area of ​​challenge for developing countries, which usually have an underdeveloped financial system, is the provision of green investments for infrastructure projects and the provision of credit and insurance with which large and small-scale economic entities manage risks.

The purpose of issuing green bonds is to raise financial resources for climate change initiatives. These fixed income instruments generally favor climate-friendly activities. The performance of green bonds issued in US dollars and euros was better than that of non-green bonds [3]. In 2019, the green finance market grew significantly in Latin America and the Caribbean. For that matter, Brazil has the largest green bond market in the region at $5.13 billion [4]. Multilateral development banks started issuing green bonds in the period 2007–2008 with the aim of investing in climate-related projects. In addition, non-financial corporations play a key role in green finance. Brazil has registered 19 bonds issued by 13 companies amounting to $5.1 billion [4] , with some green bonds targeting agricultural and forestry projects. According to estimates, countries of Latin America and the Caribbean will need funds amounting to $23 trillion by 2030 [5]. In this sense, the Inter-American Development Bank [3] is assisting the Brazilian government in simplifying the procedures of developing regulations for the issuance of green bonds. There are three public sector entities (i.e. Electrobras, Caixa Econômica Federal and Banco do Basil) that are leading green bond issuers in Brazil, while 67% of green bonds are issued by non-financial corporations.

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The covered bond market has a long history of growth and development. From a historical perspective, Prussia issued covered bonds in 1769, allowing banks to raise funds for housing and land. In 1900, covered bonds were incorporated into the German mortgage banking law and such instruments were issued to finance post-war reconstruction and reunification infrastructure [6]. Covered bonds are guaranteed as mortgage loans or public sector loans and the pool value of loans does not exceed 90%. These instruments provide easy access to capital markets and investors have preferential rights over others in the event of bankruptcy.

Based on IMF rankings, Canada was one of the top economies in 2007 and 2016 [7, 8]. Among the top 10 climate-related mortgage countries, the US and Canada are ranked second and fifth. In the US, Special Purpose Entities (SPE) or Special Purpose Vehicles issue covered bonds. Furthermore, investments in sustainable projects increased from $8.7 trillion in 2016 to $12 trillion in 2018. In Canada, such investments increased from $1.5 trillion in 2016 to $2.1 trillion in 2018 [9].

Nevertheless, a global and comprehensive climate finance strategy is lacking even though the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decided in 2009 and 2010 to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 and established the Green Climate Fund in 2012 [10].

Adapting Forex Strategies To Brazilian Economic Trends

In the context of global warming and climate change, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuels have been intensively investigated, but there is still no reliable data on GHG emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use [11, 12]. GHG emissions result from the burning of crop residues, which consist of methane (CH

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Oh). The largest emitters of GHG come from Asia (50%), America (26%), Africa and Europe (each with 11%) [13].

The importance of our research study stems from the need to investigate factors such as GDP, domestic credit of banks (DCB) and domestic credit of the financial sector (DCF), three of the most common challenges for the greening of financial systems, especially after the 2008 financial crisis. The novelty of our study consists in the fact that we investigated green finance by focusing on main components of the financial system before, during and after the 2008 crisis. Through a panel data analysis, along with the above variables, we also considered the N

Emissions and the added value of agricultural, forestry and fishing activities. The rapidly increasing level of N

O emissions are one of the most important triggers of climate change.

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