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“addressing Energy Poverty: Strategies For Equitable Access To Power”

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Enpor • Energy Poor Households In The Private Rented Sector

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The Role of Social Enterprises in Addressing Power Poverty: Making the Case for Improved Understanding through the Theory of Co-Production of Knowledge and the Theory of Social Capital.

By Praveen Kumar Praveen Kumar Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * and Nishant Tiwary Nishant Tiwary Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2

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Ministry of Power and Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India, 207 Shram Shakti Bhawan, New Delhi 110001, India

Received: 10 June 2020 / Revised: 1 October 2020 / Accepted: 12 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020

Social enterprises have become increasingly central to the field of energy poverty. As a result of market and government failure, increased emphasis on social enterprises to address energy poverty has emerged. However, there are few written documents that guide the role of civil society in solving the problem of energy poverty. We use the theories of co-creation and social economy to examine the role of social enterprises in spreading and implementing clean energy solutions for poor communities. By integrating the implications of these theories, we argue that social enterprises act as honest brokers between communities and technologists, develop new social relationships, and change social norms to move poor communities to adopt and use clean energy practices. Understanding the role of social enterprises in addressing energy poverty through a theoretical framework will provide guidance for conducting systematic research.

About 3 billion poor people, or 41% of the world’s population, continue to rely on the use of solid fuels such as firewood, charcoal, agricultural residues, and animal dung [1]. These solid oils are mainly used for cooking by heating them on open fires or in traditional stoves. The combustion of solid fuels in these traditional stoves produces significant emissions of aerosolized carbon and particulate matter, causing respiratory infections. They are the main cause of indoor air pollution (HAP) [2]. Also, approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity [3]. People often use kerosene in open fires and household lighting. Burning kerosene in an open fire releases carbon monoxide and black carbon, which also contribute to HAP, and are dangerous to human health and the environment. While the use of traditional technology and the depletion of fossil fuels are harmful to health and the environment, they remain the primary source of cooking, lighting, and heat in most parts of the world. The lack of adequate, high-quality, and affordable forms of energy or energy systems contribute to the situation of energy poverty [4, 5, 6, 7]. Energy poverty is defined as the lack of access and choice to adequate, affordable, reliable, high-quality, safe, and environmentally sound energy services to support economic and human development [6, 8, 9, 10]. Research has shown that the lack of affordable, clean, and modern electricity services contributes to well-being [4, 6, 7]. Energy poverty therefore appears to be a barrier to social and economic growth. Inadequate sanitation and affordable fuel and energy systems are at the root of the problem of energy poverty. The potential solution lies in enabling the weak communities to use: (1) clean fuel and (2) clean electricity technologies [11].

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The widespread and sustainable use of energy-efficient technologies such as clean stoves (CCS), induction stoves, solar panels, and solar lighting systems have significant environmental, climate, and health benefits. Clean energy technologies show potential to solve the problems of energy poverty. However, the adoption and sustainable use of these technologies is not widespread, and the abandonment rate of these technologies is high [12, 13, 14]. This problem causes energy poverty to persist. Various interventions by the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have failed so far in solving this problem. Governments have invested heavily in interventions that have proven to be ineffective due to technical inefficiencies, lack of understanding of community needs, the nature of aid efforts, poor coordination, and poor distribution networks [15, 16, 17, 18]. Conversely, aid-driven NGOs have a strong understanding of community needs, but have failed in their interventions due to fragmented efforts and insufficient attention to financial sustainability [15].

Poor government and philanthropic efforts have led to increased attention to consistent commercial and market-driven models for the sustainable distribution and implementation of these clean energy systems [15, 19]. Considering the low financial returns harvested in low income domestic electronic services, social enterprises rather than traditional business enterprises have the opportunity to enter this sector [15, 16, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23]. Global efforts on clean energy systems by the UN’s SE4 All (Sustainable Energy for All), the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves (GACC), Solar Cookers International (SCI), and the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) emphasize social entrepreneurship as an effective way to. to address energy poverty. For example, GACC is highly dependent on the success of social enterprises to reach its goal of distributing 100 million CCS globally by 2020. Similarly, Lighting Africa is a World Bank initiative to create an enabling environment for social enterprises operating in pro-poor solar. electrical works. We describe social enterprises that combine business and philanthropy in order to create social and social processes [24]. They have a mixed personality, and they increase their relationship to join together to create a good relationship [20, 25, 26, 27].

Despite the recent emphasis on social enterprises to solve energy poverty, we add the concepts of co-production and social economy to explain the purchase of social enterprises in solving energy poverty for two reasons. First, there is not enough systematic literature to understand the role of these businesses in the context of energy poverty [28]. Most research has taken an actor-centered approach [20, 28]. As such, there have been many case studies of successful social entrepreneurs. However, there is little literature that guides their development in their workplaces [19]. Second, the working practices of social enterprises enable them to enter into market-based ways of advancing social work [29]. They create positive relationships by promoting social relationships and connecting different partners [29].

The theories of co-creation and social economy are related to the underlying concepts of discussing social enterprises and social welfare (which is solving energy poverty, in this text). Therefore, this conceptual paper makes an attempt to close this gap by using the theories of the integration of information and social economics to analyze the role of social enterprises in solving the problem of energy poverty. The concepts of co-production and social capital are specifically chosen to discuss the role of social enterprises in energy poverty. This is for two reasons: (1) social enterprises incorporate market-based principles to create a good society. This is necessary for social relations with participants to increase business acumen and deliver excellence. The theory of social capital considers the equal choice to explain the social relations of social enterprises. (2) Addressing energy poverty requires the development of clean energy technologies that meet the social, cultural, and cultural needs of poor communities. Co-creation theory emphasizes the importance of social and technological determinism in system development. However, seeing the role of social enterprises through these two theories can provide better ways of doing things for students and practitioners to solve energy poverty through implementing social enterprises. It should be noted that this article does not trivialize the work and potential of other teaching strategies in this area. The aim is to broaden the discussion about the role of social enterprises and energy poverty using these two theoretical frameworks.

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The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 briefly discusses the theoretical background of co-creation knowledge from the science, technology, and society (STS) framework. STS scholarship defines integration as a dynamic interaction between technology and society [20]. Instead, co-creation supports greater “community-science” collaboration and integrating community perspectives into technology development and development. The third part uses the vision of co-creating knowledge from

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