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Climate Change And Its Impact On Plants Pdf
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By Ali Raza Ali Raza Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, * , Ali Razzaq Ali Razzaq Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 2, Sundas Saher Mehmood Sundas Saher Mehmood Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, Xiling Zou Xiling Zou Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, * , Xuekun Zhang Xuekun Zhang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1, * , Yan Lv Yan Lv Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar View Publications 1 and Jinsong Xu Jinsong Xu Scilit Preprints. org Google Scholar View Publications 1
Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops, Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Wuhan 430062, China
Pdf) Climate Channge Impacts On Ntfps
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
Agriculture and climate change are internally correlated with each other in various aspects, as climate change is the main cause of biotic and abiotic stress that have negative effects on the agriculture of a region. The country and its agriculture are affected by climate change in various ways, e.g. Variations in annual rainfall, average temperature, heat waves, changes in weeds, pests or microbes, global change in atmospheric CO2
Or ozone levels, and fluctuations in sea level. The threat of varied global climate has strongly driven the attention of scientists, as these variations convey a negative impact on global crop production and compromise food security worldwide. According to some predicted reports, agriculture is considered to be the most dangerous activity that will be negatively affected by climate change. To date, food security and ecosystem resilience are the most concerning issues worldwide. Climate-smart agriculture is the only way to reduce the negative impact of climate variations on crop adaptation before it can drastically affect global crop production. In this review paper, we summarize the causes of climate change, stress produced by climate change, impacts on crops, modern breeding technologies, and biotechnological strategies to deal with climate change, to develop climate resilient crops. Revolutions in genetic engineering techniques can also help to overcome food security issues against extreme environmental conditions by producing transgenic plants.
Crop adaptation; climate change; genetic engineering; genome wide association studies (GWAS); marker-assisted selection (MSA); molecular breeding; hormonal reactions; physiological responses
Aotearoa New Zealand’s Climate Change Adaptation Act: Building A Durable Future, Current Legislative And Policy Framework For Managed Relocation, Working Paper 2
Natural systems, human health, and agricultural production are badly affected by destructive environmental changes . With the rapid increase in the world’s population, there is a corresponding increase in the demand for food due to concerns about the stability of the global environment. Water availability, air pollution and soil fertility have a major impact on agricultural productivity . With sudden changes in environmental conditions, the harsh effects on plant productivity continue in great intensity through direct and indirect effects of abiotic stress. Due to the continuous deforestation and the excessive use of fossil fuels, the concentration of CO
Are the main factors for the greenhouse effect and warmer average global temperatures . The effects of climate change and environmental variations are mainly estimated by the number of stress spells, their impact on daily life and damage to agricultural crops . In developing countries, the agricultural yield has suffered mainly due to negative environmental conditions, therefore high temperature and excess of CO2
Accumulation has forced scientists to develop new strategies to deal with less predictable challenges . To address these limitations and to address guaranteed food security, there is a need for the production of new climate-smart crops . Plant growth and yield are strongly affected by abiotic stress. Under natural climate conditions, plants often experience many stresses such as water logging, drought, heat, cold and salinity [7, 8]. The abiotic factors also include UV-B, light intensities, floods, gas emissions, and physical and chemical factors that induce more stress . In the 21st century, the earth’s average temperature should rise from 2 to 4.5 °C. According to IPCC-2014 (http://www.ipcc.ch/), the period between the 19th and 21st centuries is considered to be the period that experienced the most warming . Extreme rainfall events could well cause destruction due to floods, while the scarcity or total absence of rainfall for a longer period leads to drought stress . The environment of the globe is continuously changing and industrialization is one of the main factors for the increase in temperature. Due to extreme weather events, the frequency of global warming is expected to increase, which will ultimately disrupt the ecosystem worldwide . All living organisms such as plants, animals, fish, and humans have been affected by the extreme environmental conditions around the globe. The threat to the world’s climatic conditions has triggered anxiety among everyone as crop production may be compromised by fluctuations in various environmental factors that may risk food security. Recent studies reported that developed countries have more vulnerability to climate change (8-11%) than developing countries [13, 14]. Climate change and food insecurity are the two major issues of the 21st century. Around 815 million people are affected by malnutrition, which hinders sustainable development programs to achieve the universal goal of eliminating hunger by 2030 . Food security and agricultural yields are significantly affected by adverse weather. With increasing temperature, the production of major crops is evidently reduced around the world . By the end of this century, global crop production is likely to decline as climate severity increases from 2.6 to 4 °C. Reduction of the productivity of these crops means the main threat to food security, especially in the rapidly increasing world population . The population is expected to grow to about 9 billion in 2050 and food demand is expected to escalate by about 85% . Climatic influences are worsened by current cropping schemes with low variation and elevated concentration of inputs, and unstable productivity due to environmental changes in crops . Increasing frequency of drought and heavy rainfall, temperature fluctuations, salinity, and insect pest attacks are expected to reduce crop productivity, leading to higher threats of famine [ 20 ]. Crop adaptability suffered not only as a result of temperature variations, but also due to rainfall . Currently, the main task is to reduce the pressure on food security . This review emphasizes the influence of weather variations on crop production. The next sections outline the overview of climate change, stress produced due to climate change, impacts on agricultural crops, strategies to cope with extreme environmental conditions, and some recent genetically engineered approaches to develop transgenic plants against abiotic stress.
Plant physiology has been greatly affected by climate variability through a variety of means. Environmental extremes and climate variability have enhanced the chances of many stresses on plants . Climate change affects crop production through direct, indirect and socio-economic effects as described in Figure 1. In addition, climate change (drought, flood, high temperatures, storms etc.) are dramatically increased as reported by the Food and Agriculture Organization. (FAO) and as in Figure 2.
Ways Climate Change Impacts Forests
Boyer reported that climate change has reduced crop production by up to 70% since 1982 . According to the 2007 FAO study (http://www.fao.org/home/en/), all cultivated areas in the world are affected by climate change and only 3.5% of the areas are safe from environmental constraints (for Details see Table 3.7 in http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1075e/a1075e00.htm) . While the results of abiotic stress on crop production are difficult to calculate precisely, it is believed that abiotic stresses have a significant influence on crop production depending on the extent of damage to the total area under cultivation. In the future, the productivity of major crops is estimated to fall in many countries of the world due to global warming, water scarcity, and other environmental impacts [28, 29].
Based on national crop yields and questionnaire surveys, large differences in vulnerability to current climate change across Europe were detected. In Northern Europe, the short duration for crop development and cool
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