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Combining Indicators: Maximizing Returns In Brazil’s Forex Strategies
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By Joel Henrique Ellwanger Joel Henrique Ellwanger Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Carlos Afonso Nobre Carlos Afonso Nobre Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, 3 and José Artur Bogo Chies José Artur Bogo Chies Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1
Laboratório de Imunobiologia e Imunogenética, Departamento de Genetica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Biologia Molecular (PPGBM), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre 91501-970, Brazil
Global, Regional, And National Burden Of Diabetes From 1990 To 2021, With Projections Of Prevalence To 2050: A Systematic Analysis For The Global Burden Of Disease Study 2021
Received: 11 November 2022 / Revised: 4 December 2022 / Accepted: 23 December 2022 / Published: 28 December 2022
Six terrestrial biomes and a vast coastline make Brazil one of the most biodiverse countries in the world. However, the potential of Brazil’s biodiversity as a valuable and sustainable source of wealth and development has been neglected. To reverse this scenario, countries need to recognize and take on the power of biodiversity, with a focus on (I) industry, science and technology, (II) biological conservation and maintenance of ecosystem services, taking into account their impact on agriculture and public health, and (III ) ecotourism, conservation and sustainable development of local communities. Joint action of the Brazilian people and the scientific community is necessary to achieve this goal, which must be realized in the election of politicians who are committed to sustainable development and improvement of research and technology based on Brazil’s biodiversity. Additional reasons for conserving Brazil’s biodiversity (eg intrinsic, cultural and ethical values) are also discussed in this article. Finally, we argue that Brazil should restore its global leadership on the environmental agenda and regard its biodiversity as a source of Soft Power, as well as develop its neglected capacities in the field of a sustainable bio-based economy (bioeconomy). In short, Brazil needs to acknowledge and embrace the power of its biodiversity.
Brazil is a rich country in several aspects. Brazil’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is among the largest in the world, ranking 12th in the 2020 World GDP Ranking to be exact . The area of Brazil is usually referred to as ‘continental proportions’, and is the fifth largest country in the world with a total area of 8,515,770 km2.
, has the second largest forest area in the world, and abundant natural resources such as minerals, oil and water. For the record, 12% of the world’s fresh water resources are located in Brazil, mostly in the Amazon Basin . Also following superlative terms, Brazil’s biodiversity is the richest in the world [2, 3], spread along a coastline of approximately 8500 km  and six terrestrial biomes: Amazon (tropical rainforest), Caatinga (semi-arid vegetation). ), Cerrado (savanna-like vegetation), Pantanal (wetlands), Atlantic Forest (forest systems and ecosystems under the influence of the Atlantic Ocean) and Pampa (grasslands), each with very specific characteristics in terms of landscape, geomorphology, soil , fauna, and flora. Endemism is high in the country [5, 6, 7], and Brazil is home to ~15% of all living species on earth . Brazil’s coastline is also highly biodiverse, hence it is considered the ‘Blue Amazon’. Marine and coastal resources contribute 19% to Brazil’s GDP . The country has a robust deforestation monitoring system coordinated by the National Institute for Space Research  with data publicly available online (http://terrabrasilis.dpi.inpe.br/, accessed 18 June 2022), one of the deforestation monitoring systems the biggest in the world. a number of protected areas (~18% of the terrestrial area, considering six biomes), and advanced environmental protection laws [2, 7].
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On the other hand, problems that are structural and persistent in Brazilian society, such as racism, gender inequality, lack of environmental sanitation systems, transportation problems, unemployment, difficulty accessing health care, political corruption, violence, and failures in the basic education system. , 12, 13, 14] contributes to the monetary well-being of the country being concentrated in a small proportion of the population, making Brazil one of the countries with the highest index of social inequality in the world . In other words, Brazil is not a poor country. In fact, Brazil is a very rich country in many aspects, but is inhabited by a majority of poor people .
Inequality in access to environmental services, gap between announcement and implementation of policies, and lack of qualified human resources to deal with environmental issues extend Brazil’s social problems to the field of biodiversity . In this regard, the lack of professionals to explore Brazilian biodiversity (eg taxonomists) is a critical problem in Brazil. As a result, many terrestrial taxa and marine systems are under-studied or still unknown . It is also important to extend the study of biodiversity by considering its multidimensional (i.e., taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic) range and complexity .
During the current federal government (2019–2022), issues affecting the distribution of wealth in Brazil were compounded by the weakening of environmental protection laws and institutions, including the National Indigenous Peoples Foundation (FUNAI), resulting in the encouragement of illegal activities (e.g. mining, logging ) in places such as Indigenous lands and protected areas, and cause environmental degradation and serious conflicts between illegal workers and Indigenous Peoples [18, 19, 20].
The statutory maintenance of a fixed proportion of native vegetation on private property (Reserved Law) is threatened, especially by the agribusiness sector . In Brazil, the agribusiness sector (soy, sugarcane, cattle ranching, and meatpacking conglomerates) still forms a bio-based economy (‘biomaterials bioeconomy’ ). This group is an organized group with strong parliamentary representation, threatens the interests of small agricultural producers and sustainable development strategies beyond the scope of big agribusiness players and also provides space for sustainable land use change in the country, particularly deforestation [22, 23, 24]. Behind only the United States, Brazil is the second largest producer of biofuels (e.g. ethanol derived from sugar cane) in the world, making biofuels a key product of the bioeconomic sector in the country, demonstrating the strong link between Brazil’s current bioeconomy and intensive agriculture. practice and agribusiness . The federal government’s environmental agenda for 2019–2022 (led by Jair Bolsonaro) features a number of other sensitive measures, including incentives for expanding agriculture and livestock, reducing funds for forest inspections, facilitating the use of agrochemicals and pesticides, and budget cuts. and the weakening of the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) and the Chico Mendes Institute for the Conservation of Biodiversity (ICMBio) .
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After greenhouse gas emissions decreased in Brazil by around 50% between 2004 and 2012 (as measured in millions of tons of CO
Equivalent) due to a drastic reduction in forest clearing , Amazon deforestation has again increased since 2013 . By 2021, Amazon deforestation will reach an alarming rate of over 13,000 km2
, the highest record in the last 15 years . This scenario contributes to environmental degradation and underestimates the resources that Brazil’s biodiversity can offer for the country’s development. Brazil’s current economic model does not contribute to environmental protection. If examining the economic sector, agriculture and livestock are the main greenhouse gas emitters in Brazil .
Anthropogenic fires in the Pantanal and Amazon biomes, both UNESCO World Heritage Sites , have become increasingly frequent in recent years [28, 29], with smoke reaching major cities such as Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo [30 ] . These fires have social impacts on directly affected populations, hamper tourism activities, threaten the survival of many species of animals and plants, contribute to climate change, and endanger the respiratory health of people living even at great distances from affected areas [28, 30, 31]. In the Amazon forest, fires are strongly linked to deforestation . Recent data shows that since 2001, 103.079–189.755 km
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(2.2–4.1%) of the Amazon forest is affected by fire, with a wide range of adverse impacts on threatened and endemic species . The impact of fires on Amazonian biodiversity has intensified since 2019, partly due to the relaxation of forest protection policies .
Road construction also threatens biodiversity hotspots (eg, Iguaçu National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site)  and some Indigenous lands. Toll road
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