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Combining Indicators: Maximizing Returns In Taiwan’s Forex Strategies

Combining Indicators: Maximizing Returns In Taiwan's Forex Strategies

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By Nam Hoai Tran Nam Hoai Tran Scilit Google Scholar 1 , Shih-Hsien Yang Shih-Hsien Yang Scilit Google Scholar 1, * , Calista Y. Tsai Calista Y. Tsai Scilit Google Scholar 2, Nien Chia Yang Nien Chia Yang Scilit Google Scholar 1 and Chih-Ming Chang Chih-Ming Chang Scilit Google Scholar 3

Received: October 30, 2021 / Revised: November 25, 2021 / Accepted: December 14, 2021 / Published: December 19, 2021

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Although some developed countries have introduced indicators in rating systems to measure and support the sustainability performance of road projects, it may still be difficult to apply these indicators to other regions/countries. In response to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, Taiwan’s local road agencies urgently need to establish a systematic and quantifiable sustainable road strategy. As part of the Taiwan Green Urban Roadway Assessment System Development Project, this study aims to develop transportation viability indicators (TLIs) and identify critical barriers to the use of TLIs in Taiwan’s urban roadway system. To this end, the study used an adaptive approach combining top-down and bottom-up approaches. The top-down approach included a comprehensive literature review and discussion to derive nine potential barriers to adoption of the four TLIs and 21 related requirements and criteria. The four TLIs are pedestrian facilities, universal design, multimodal transportation and public utility facilities. The bottom-up approach used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to assign weights to the proposed criteria/requirements. The True Sum Model (WSM) method also explored 4 critical barriers, namely poor on-the-ground conditions, lack of stakeholder coordination, lack of public policy and regulatory support, and limited budget and schedule. The results of the research may be useful for engineers and decision makers to improve urban street living standards. The framework proposed in this study can be applied to other road characteristics in different regions/countries.

The road network is the most important infrastructure of cities. Especially in densely populated urban areas, the increasing use of cars is degrading the urban environment and streets. Thus, in the 1960s and 1970s, developed countries began to implement policies to support the green road/highway system [1]. A greenway/highway is a highway project construction that includes five key elements: (1) ecosystem protection, (2) stormwater management, (3) life cycle energy and emissions reduction, (4) recycling and reuse, and is a system. renewable materials, (5) general social management [2]. Greenways require consideration of social benefits such as safety, equity, accessibility and public health in addition to geography, environment and ecology. These factors are major contributors to livable streets [3]. Habitat transport in this research focuses on the physical aspects of livable urban roads (eg configuration, motorized and non-motorized traffic, road structures, utilities) rather than the functional and social characteristics of livable streets.

In line with the rapid development of urbanization in the developing world, the construction and expansion of city streets is very important for urban infrastructure systems and urban development. Therefore, decision-makers and scientists have been supporting the development of urban streets as part of the objective of improving the living environment in developing countries [3]. In order to improve the living environment of vehicles on city streets, it is aimed at managing the conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles, building dedicated lanes and other facilities for public transport and bicycle mode [1]. Transport viability focuses on creating convenient access and connectivity for all, improving the transition to environmentally friendly modes of transport, and ensuring street facilities and amenities [1].

Combining Indicators: Maximizing Returns In Taiwan's Forex Strategies

Recent academic works suggest that street layouts should be more flexible for different street users in order to improve urban road transport viability [3]. Tumlin [4] emphasized the importance of adequate sidewalks and other supporting facilities to create a more pleasant environment for daily commuting, such as sidewalks, crossings, shelters, and timing signals. According to Mayer [5], the bicycle mode choice plays an important role in sustainable transport by reducing the use of private motor vehicles, creating a healthy lifestyle, reducing travel costs, and especially reducing the environmental footprint of motor vehicles. The most important element in facilitating bicycle travel is street bike lanes. Integrating these two active modes (i.e. active transport) with public transport represents a possible strategy for urban transport policy [6]. Adequate and convenient provision of public transportation and bicycle parking (ie, park and ride) can ensure smooth and continuous access and connectivity for these transit modes. The principle of universal streets, which is a design aspect in the property category, requires that all streets in the city are easily accessible to all users, paying particular attention to the most vulnerable groups, such as the disabled, the elderly, and children [7]. In addition to the usual pedestrian elements, the main components of universal accessibility can be pedestrian ramps and guides for the visually impaired (for example, tactile pavements or tactile warning strips). Another important aspect of the social impact of urban roads is the synergistic placement of buried utilities (e.g., power cables, telecommunications lines, sewers, and drains) so that they do not interfere with the urban street system [8].

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Although the above elements can make urban roads more livable, they are not guaranteed to be successful in certain situations. Scholars have reported various barriers to using street transportation viability. Chan and Tsai [9] identified nine reasons/obstacles to sustainable road planning in Taiwan, including limited budget and schedule, insufficient database and information. These barriers are also mentioned in Banister [10] and other studies. Bardal et al. [11]. Policy measures and strategies (e.g., sustainability assessment systems) are needed to overcome barriers and enable the adoption of transport viability concepts on city streets [12].

Sustainable transport infrastructure assessment systems have been developed over the past decade to assess and support the sustainability performance of transport projects. Rating systems such as Greenroads and INVEST collect a number of best practices (such as benchmarks) that can quantitatively and qualitatively measure road sustainability success. Thus, the rating system allows users to monitor changes and developments in sustainability [13]. When assessing the relevance, importance and impact on sustainable development, a specific score is assigned to each criterion based on the consensus of experts and relevant stakeholders in a group discussion. However, this scoring method is controversial due to the subjectivity of expert judgment [14]. Under each criterion, a set of requirements or guidelines specify specific data, thresholds, and requests that a project must meet in order to score [14]. But uniform rating system is invalid due to following reasons. First, sustainability is a context-sensitive approach due to the complex nature of assessing sustainability in different regions/countries. Existing criteria developed for specific evaluation contexts often do not correspond to other evaluation contexts [15]. Second, transport infrastructure projects have a significant geographic footprint, both in terms of the location of infrastructure and services, and their impact on populations and physical systems (e.g., population density, land use, socioeconomic conditions) [16] . Third, the performance of transportation projects can vary depending on the type of project. In addition to common features, municipal roads may also house utility facilities such as street lighting, signal power cables, communication cables, and other pipelines. The preceding papers have clarified the need to develop criteria defined in a specific evaluation system that includes specific local conditions and road types.

A recent attempt to adapt the above has been made through the development of road sustainability assessment system criteria for specific countries. For example, Park and Ahn [17] proposed a green road rating system framework for South Korea, and Ibrahim and Shaker [18] developed a sustainability index for highway construction projects in Egypt. However, there are some limitations in these studies, which are considered as the starting point of this study. First, the study offered multiple indicators for overall evaluation

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