“demand Response And Energy Storage For Grid Stability In Europe” – Forecasting electricity sales using moving average approaches and hybrid autoregressive integrated soft computing approaches in the absence of explanatory variables
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“demand Response And Energy Storage For Grid Stability In Europe”
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By Alessia Arteconi Alessia Arteconi Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * and Fabio Polonara Fabio Polonara Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2
Reasons To Get Charged Up About Energy Storage
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e Scienze Matematiche, Università Politecnica delle Marche, via brecce bianche 1, 60131 Ancona, Italy
Received: June 29, 2018 / Revised: July 8, 2018 / Accepted: July 13, 2018 / Published: July 14, 2018
The demand for energy in buildings represents a considerable share of the total energy consumption. Given the well-known significance and flexibility of thermostatically controlled loads, they represent an interesting option for implementing demand-side management (DSM) strategies. In this article, an overview of possible DSM applications in the field of air conditioning and heat pumps is presented. In particular, the focus is on the heat pump sector. Three cases are analyzed in order to evaluate the energy flexibility provided by DSM technologies classified as energy efficient devices, energy storage systems and demand response programs. The load transfer potential, in terms of power and time, is evaluated by changing the system configuration. The main findings show that energy efficient devices perform conservation strategies and peak shaving strategies, energy storage systems perform load shifting, while demand response schemes perform peak shaving and valley filling strategies.
Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for about 40% of all energy use in both Europe and the US [1, 2]. In particular, heating and cooling in buildings has a high share of the total energy use. Air conditioners are responsible on average for about 5% of global electricity consumption, with a variable percentage from country to country (for example, 14% in the USA and 40% in India) , and this part is expected to increase due to the increasing demand for cooling also due to global warming. The relevance of heat pumps is also increasing; In 2015, about 800,000 units were sold in Europe and a growing trend in sales is estimated for the coming years . However, buildings are considered a resource in electrical systems thanks to the high energy flexibility they guarantee. Indeed, in buildings there are several loads that can be turned off (eg, washing machines and dishwashers) and thermostatically controlled loads (TCL), such as heat pumps, refrigerators and air conditioners. The latest technologies, in particular, contain different forms of storage, which can be used to change the electrical load without affecting the quality of the energy service . The energy flexibility provided by buildings is extremely important to reduce the following challenges of future power systems, and its precise definition and quantification has a major role, as stated by the Annex 67 Working Group on Energy Flexible Buildings . Furthermore, the EU Energy Performance of Buildings Directive  is pushing towards new and more performant buildings – near-zero energy buildings (nZEB) – where energy efficiency and energy flexibility are essential to achieve the required performance targets.
The Added Value Of Heatpumps For Grid Stability Via Demand Response
Given this assumption, the building heating and cooling sector promises to implement demand side management (DSM) strategies that aim to change the end user’s electricity demand based on the needs of the electricity network. The relevance of DSM is related to the growing share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the production mix, and consequently to the need to integrate them and adjust the energy demand for intermittent and unpredictable production. Apart from this aspect, DSM can produce several other advantages in the electricity system, which can be summarized as : reduced need to increase electricity production capacity; Higher operational efficiency in the production, transmission and distribution of electric power; and reducing electricity costs. The DSM strategy can have different objectives, such as peak shaving, valley filling, load shifting, energy conservation, and strategic load growth .
DSM technologies can be used to enable the energy flexibility of buildings. They can be divided into three main categories: (i) energy-efficient end-use devices; (ii) additional equipment, systems and controls to enable load shaping (eg, energy storage); and (iii) communication systems between end users and external parties, for example, demand response (DR) programs . While the first point concerns energy savings through devices that use less energy, the other two points deal with systems that aim to change end-user demand: thermal energy storage systems can be used to store excess energy to be released for later use, while demand response achieves changes in end-user load through price signals from the network.
The purpose of this article is to highlight how DSM technologies for air conditioning and heat pumps can unlock energy flexibility in buildings and show, as a result, what kind of DSM strategy can be realized through them. A recent review is presented to illustrate the current trend in the application of the DSM categories mentioned above (section 2), namely (i) energy efficiency, (ii) energy storage systems and (iii) demand response schemes. . In this way, a holistic overview of the potential for managing the energy demand associated with cooling or heating loads is provided. Given the relevance in terms of share in global energy use and units sold worldwide, and the growing importance of electrical energy among end uses, a particular focus is on the heat pump sector. Three different case studies for each of the considered DSM categories are analyzed and the resulting energy flexibility is quantified using flexibility indices available in the literature and illustrated in section 3. Indeed, it has been shown that several indicators have been presented to quantify energy flexibility. ; Here the main innovation lies in the most significant application to compare the flexibility potential of different DSM technologies. Using these case studies, an in-depth analysis of more efficient devices, energy storage systems and DR operations is carried out and their impact in terms of changing the energy demand load shape is discussed (Section 4). Some conclusions regarding the opening of energy flexibility are drawn based on the results obtained (Section 5).
In this section, we will discuss the process of how demand side management can be realized in the HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning) sector. Chillers and heat pumps, as mentioned, belong to the category of thermostatically controlled loads: they aim to maintain the operating temperature within a given range and they allow the shifting of the thermal loads produced by electricity conversion, thanks to the storage of inherent or external thermal energy. The results of the literature review are divided based on the above classification of DSM technologies: energy efficiency, energy storage and demand response. The main findings are summarized in Table 1 and discussed in detail in the following sections.
Major Barrier To Demand Response Needs To End
Energy efficiency can be achieved in reverse cycle appliances (ie, heat pumps and chillers) in several ways. You can act according to: (i) choosing a proper and environmentally friendly coolant; (ii) more efficient design of components (variable speed compressors, variable refrigerant flow, exhausts); (iii) application of technologies that are not in kind; and (iv) optimization of the overall HVAC system and control strategies.
In the literature, there are several studies dealing with the issues mentioned above. Some of them are reported below:
The relevance of coupling reverse cycle devices with thermal energy storage in order to change the demand of the end user and adapt it to the production of the electricity system has been proven in the literature .
Cold thermal energy storage (CTES) can be connected to an air conditioning chiller. This can be thermal storage of chilled water (sensible TES) or ice storage (latent TES) . TES can convey several advantages: improving the efficiency of cooling equipment, reducing installed capacity, increasing operational flexibility and reducing energy costs, since cold is produced during peak periods and used during
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