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“electric Vehicles And The Power Grid: Balancing The Energy Demands”

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Minimizing Electric Vehicles’ Impact On The Grid

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By Jun Tang Jun Tang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Xiang Ma Xiang Ma Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 , Ren Gu Ren Gu Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar Li Shi Li Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Chen Yang Chen Yang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 and Bo Yang Bo Yang

Received: 14 October 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 12 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019

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In order to effectively reduce the regulation costs of power lines and to improve the performance of automatic generation control (AGC), an evolutionary mathematical model for sending AGC generation command with electric vehicle (EV) base is proposed in this paper. , in which the consensus value algorithm of AGC is adopted. In particular, consensus variables are applied to exchange information between different AGC units. At the same time, consensus variables are used to determine the generation order, in which the flexibility of the proposed algorithm can be greatly improved. In addition, the feasibility of implementing such an algorithm is verified through a series of simulation experiments on the Hainan power grid in southern China, where the results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively can effectively ensure the frequency regulation of EVs participating in AGC.

Power system frequency stability is an important indicator of the quality and safety of the power system [1, 2], in which power system regulation is usually achieved by automatic generation control (AGC), which can guarantee the satisfaction frequency quality and safe operation. with the electricity. power system by maintaining a real-time balance between the generator and power system loads. In addition, with large-scale interactive energy such as wind power [3] connected to the grid, high requirements for frequency regulation [4] and mobile storage capacity are urgently needed to balance unexpected power disturbances. [5] to reduce the potential for quality problems [6] and to ensure that power systems can operate in a safe and economical condition [7]. Therefore, intermittent energy can be operated at the highest point of power [8] mainly by using different control techniques [9]. In particular, when more electric vehicles (EVs) are connected to the grid, that is, vehicle to grid (V2G), the utilization of EVs to provide auxiliary services such as frequency regulation of the power system will be a topic. popular research.

With the decline in battery equipment costs, the development of charging and charging technology, the gradual development of charging infrastructure, and the successive issuance of government support policies, the growth of EVs has become an inevitable trend. and aroused widespread concern [10]. In addition, when a large number of EVs are connected to the grid, they are not only considered as loads that can absorb electricity from the grid, but can also be used as emission units to provide electricity to the grid. Therefore, EVs can be considered as controllable energy storage devices to contribute to economic dispatch [11] and peak transfer [12]. In particular, recent studies show that it is a promising V2G business model [13] to provide a frequency regulation service in the power system through centralized or decentralized control [14, 15]. According to the literature [16], compared to traditional generators, the involvement of EVs in frequency control has the advantages of frequency delay and low frequency control costs. , as well as rapid and accurate responses to repeated regulatory instructions. Besides, the literature [17] proposed the concept of EV agents, which can ensure that the group sends more EVs to meet the power demand of the power system regulation. On the other hand, the possibility of EVs participating in the renewable power system can also be verified. Therefore, by controlling the charging and charging behavior of large-scale EVs, a series of infrastructure services, for example, regulating the frequency of the power system, can be provided to effectively alleviate the load fluctuation of the network. electricity and to remove excess energy. ], while the efficiency of renewable energy generation can be increased [19].

In general, the application of changing the battery system in bus and taxi stations can be seen as a viable business model to cope with the large-scale development of EVs. This is because buses or taxis can directly switch from a full battery to a charging station without waiting. In particular, charging stations are always equipped with a large number of batteries, which means that they have the ability to regulate high frequencies with full use of retired batteries [20]. Therefore, the charging stations can be considered as independent agents of EV to participate in the frequency regulation service [21], which is important for improving the power quality [22], while the parameters of the power quality can be estimated by a suitable algorithm. curve [23] . When multiple charging stations participate in the frequency regulation of a high voltage system, there are usually two important steps: (a) assigning the total power command ΔP

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At the EV central control center at each charging station and (b) transferring the power command to each battery station at the station.

Nowadays, the studies on the participation of EV in the frequency power system are still insufficient, which means that most of the studies mainly focus on the allocation of AGC power of EVs in the EV charging station. Besides, the relevant issues including frequency pricing, charging cost, and charging demand have been considered in the literature [24], in which the allocation model is proposed to maximize the benefits of EV charging station. In addition, the authors [25] considered the fairness of EV participation in the power system regulation of the power system as the final objective, instead of maximizing the benefits of the EV charging base, for which various optimization algorithms have been proposed. to fairly allocate the charging and discharging capacity of the EV. Moreover, in order to avoid excessive charging and excessive discharge of batteries, the authors [26] allocated power orders for frequency regulation according to the ratio allocation method based on the state-of-charge (SOC).

However, none of the studies mentioned above included the distribution of AGC power in EV charging stations. At the moment, the most convenient and practical way is to allocate total power instructions

Same as any EV charging station according to the adjustable power ratio. Because each EV charging station is owned by different agents and the cost of power system regulation is different, the average power distribution system that can be adjusted cannot reduce the cost of the power frequency regulation system. In addition, the method usually allocates a total order of power

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Each EV charging station is centrally controlled, which requires the collection of information from each EV charging station in real time. When the size of the EV charging station participating in the frequency regulation system increases, communication blockage and other problems will often occur.

In order to cope with the development trend of distributed/centralized intelligent AGC [27] with high-level regeneration [28], a decentralized intelligent power control model [29] is added to multiple agents. algorithm [30] is proposed. Therefore, the independent problem of AGC voltage allocation of the connected voltage can be effectively solved, while the EV does not involve distributed generators to participate in the regulation of the frequency of the system. In particular, the consensus algorithm can make the variables to reach a consensus through the cooperation between agents and adjacent agents in a multi-agent network, which has been widely used in the control of formation, control of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) [31], clustering [31] 32], robot swarm navigation [33], and drifting [34]. Therefore, this paper applies a consensus algorithm for AGC power allocation for each EV charging station. In order to avoid charging or overcharging the battery and prolonging the battery life, the allocation method based on SOC [21] is adopted.

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