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“energy Communities And Decentralized Electricity Generation”

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Can Decentralized Energy Get Good Enough, Fast Enough?

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By Arne Surmann Arne Surmann Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, *, † , Stefan P. M. Chantrel Stefan P. M. Chantrel Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, † , Manuel Utz Manuel Utz Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, Robert Kos† , Kohrs Scilit Preprints. Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 and Jens Strüker Jens Strüker Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2

Received: 11 January 2022 / Revised: 16 February 2022 / Accepted: 21 February 2022 / Published: 26 February 2022

High Resolution Global Spatiotemporal Assessment Of Rooftop Solar Photovoltaics Potential For Renewable Electricity Generation

The use of photovoltaic energy (PV) and the involvement of residents within the energy community are becoming increasingly important elements of decentralized energy systems. However, ownership structures are still too complex to empower electricity consumers to become consumers. We have developed a token-based system of gradual transfer of PV ownership rights from early investors to residential and small-scale commercial consumers. To demonstrate the system, we set up a simulation of a 27-sided mixed-use building in a German energy community with different load profiles ranging from single student apartments to office units with battery electric vehicles. As a result, we show that the proposed system design is economically viable for all relevant stakeholders in the simulation horizon from 2022 to 2036, with a payback time of <5 years, 4 years to distribute 50% of PV tokens, and overall. Self-consumption share of 69%.

The transition towards small-scale, distributed electricity sources in the German energy sector has led to a strong increase in the productivity of renewable energy over the past decade [1, 2]. According to [1], a large proportion of the more than 1.6 million installed PV systems are composed of systems with a peak installed output of less than 10 kilowatts (kWp). The potential for further development is even greater, as more than 3.8 million apartments within residential buildings are suitable for equipment with building-integrated PV systems [3]. Despite their importance and future potential, the expansion of PV systems within renewable energy communities (RECs) is currently proceeding at a slow pace [ 4 ]. In addition to the legal framework, this is mainly due to the difficulty for individual residents to obtain shares of PV systems without a large organizational or technical effort, and to differentiate the distribution of generated electricity on a proven basis [2]. Therefore, instead of purchasing individual PV shares, consumers have been sharing PV systems in RECs through so-called “third party ownership” (TPO) models [5]. It can be designed as a “lease” or “power-purchase agreement.” (PPA) [5]. A lease involves the consumer paying a fixed monthly amount to the owner of the PV system, regardless of the energy output of the PV system. In a PPA, the consumer pays the owner a predetermined fixed price per unit of energy. In both cases, however, ownership of the PV system is not transferred to the consumer. Consumers only acquire usage rights. It only partially meets the goal of an inclusive energy transition according to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals [2]. ], residents are given access to renewable energy, but denied active participation by purchasing PV shares. To enable such participation, we developed a blockchain-based system and simulated its technical and economic viability for all stakeholders, on a mixed basis. Residential and commercial buildings within a REC in Germany. Hereby, we answer the following research questions:

RQ1: How can a technical solution be designed for simple, fast and proven acquisition of shared PV systems within the energy community? RQ2: What are the financial benefits for the stakeholders involved (consumers, energy providers, etc.)?

By enabling real small-scale commercialization, we create financial incentives for demand side management, which we expect to have a positive impact on the overall electricity system. First, it is done using the temporal matching of renewable energy production and consumption, which also applies to energy communities where production sites are not in direct proximity to consumption (such as civic energy communities), and second, it also includes local energy. Match within RECs, where matching also frees up grid capacity.

The Future Of Power Systems: Challenges, Trends, And Upcoming Paradigms

To answer the research questions, we first conduct the literature review of Section 2. In it, we present the current state of RECs in Europe, and describe changes in the business model of energy utilities and the role of blockchain technology in this context. In Section 3, we provide technical details of the aforementioned showcase building including its future occupants’ user behavior, PV energy generation, and energy consumption based on the energy management application. In Section 4, we design a system that shows how consumers in such buildings become customers, earning tokens through self-consumption and redeeming them for PV shares. The model is evaluated from an economic and technical perspective within Section 5. We conclude with a conclusion and an outlook on future applications and extensions.

Energy communities are growing worldwide, as they enable electricity consumers to advance the decarbonization of the energy system, while benefiting economically [2, 7]. In contrast to microgrids, energy communities must be physically connected, i.e. through grid infrastructure [8]. Thus, they can involve the expansion of renewable energy in residential buildings, as well as in many neighborhoods, and the cooperation of individual consumers for the common goal of increasing their own share of locally generated renewable electricity. For example, [9] examine how the expansion of residential PV systems affects electricity self-consumption rates. [1] extend this approach by combining a PV system with a storage system, and calculating the annual savings achieved by residents in energy communities. A similarly designed research issue has been investigated by [8, 10, 11]. Approaches to optimizing energy flows within energy communities are also being developed, studied, and tested in the scientific literature [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. The legal framework and challenges are explored by [9, 16]. In fact, the lack of adequate legislation to ensure viability is one of the reasons for delaying the further development of energy communities [17, 18]. In addition to these specific research questions, [7] provides a more comprehensive study of energy communities. The study examines not only the social interactions of their members, but also the technological potential of such communities, as well as the social and technological implications. In this context, [19] do a techno-economic analysis focusing on the Japanese energy system. An investigation into whether RECs can be useful facilitators for future energy systems as defined under the European Union’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) is provided by [4]. According to Article 22 of RED II, a REC is a community in which consumers can produce, consume, distribute and trade renewable energy, and in which each member must be able to access and co-own renewable assets [4]. In addition to the REC defined in RED II, with the Citizen Energy Community (CEC), the Directive on Common Rules for the Internal Electricity Market [20] provides another construct for energy communities. The main differences are that RECs include all forms of energy and demand within the spatial proximity of the RE project, while CECs only consider electricity, with no spatial boundaries. For this study, we focus on REC, as it provides the most benefits for the electricity grid when implementing local energy management, however, the structure can be applied to many forms of ECs. In a broader sense, our model may be interesting for ECs in rural areas to allow its members to first gain transparency on the amount of energy produced and consumed, to own small-scale energy assets, and finally, to build local energy. market [21].

The way renewable energy is produced and distributed within RECs, the benefits and legal challenges for their members, as well as the social impacts, have already been studied. What is missing, however, is an easily accessible path towards

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