“energy Efficiency Measures In European Gas Consumption” – The International Energy Agency has been warning for many months that the world is experiencing the first truly global energy crisis in history – and the coming months will be particularly challenging.

The natural gas crisis in Europe has been building for a while, and Russia’s role in it was clear from the beginning. In September 2021 – five months before Russia’s invasion of Ukraine – the pointed out that Russia is preventing a significant amount of gas from reaching Europe. The agency further raised the alarm in January, with executive director Fatih Birol highlighting that Russia’s large and unjustified reductions in supplies to Europe are creating “artificial tightness” in markets and driving prices at exactly the same time as tensions are rising over Ukraine.

“energy Efficiency Measures In European Gas Consumption”

After Russia’s attack on Ukraine in February, it responded quickly with vital analysis, policy advice and support for governments, including the 10-point plan to reduce the European Union’s loss of Russian natural gas, which was published just a Watch after the invasion. Dr. Birol provided the latest insights and recommendations to international leaders, including at the G7 Summit in Elmau, Germany, in June and a meeting of the European Commission in July. As the European gas crisis intensified over the summer months, On July 18, he highlighted five immediate coordinated actions that the European Union can take to prevent a major gas crunch this winter.

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Shares recommendations for the Global Biofuel Alliance at G20 Energy Transitions Ministerial Meeting News – 24 July 2023

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Analysis: Eu’s Co2 Emissions Fall 5% In Three Months After Post Covid Surge

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In accordance with EU legislation, member states report information on their policies and measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This information is used to monitor climate action on a national level. It is also important to support policy evaluation and inform policy decisions. This briefing presents the results of two case studies analyzing policies and measures targeting energy efficiency in buildings.

Evaluating the effects of existing policies can help decision-makers make better and more informed decisions about future policies. This requires a systematic process for assessing policy design, implementation, outputs and impacts. Policymakers from different countries can also learn from each other by providing information about their country’s experiences of designing and implementing policies and measures in various sectors, and assessing and monitoring their effects.

In the policy areas of climate change mitigation and energy, a number of resources or ‘databases’ on national policies and measures bring together some of the information to support the work of policymakers, researchers and other stakeholders. Notably, these include the database on climate change mitigation policies and measures in Europe

, which is based on the national information that member states report in accordance with the EU

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Shows that no one is currently able to capture all the information both available and relevant to policy evaluation. For example, the database extensively covers greenhouse gas-emitting sectors, is easily accessible, and includes both qualitative and quantitative information for each policy and measure. However, the information on the achieved (ex post) effects of all policies remains incomplete.

Therefore, combining publicly available information sources provides a more comprehensive picture of national climate mitigation policies in various sectors across the EU. The following practical case studies illustrate how these databases can support policy analysis.

“Evaluation can be defined as an evidence-based judgment of the extent to which an intervention was effective and efficient, was relevant given the needs and its objectives, was coherent both internally and with [other] interventions and achieved [EU] added- value’ [5].

When evaluating a policy or ‘intervention’, an ‘intervention logic’ can be used to identify its main characteristics, especially how the action was intended to achieve its objectives. A well-designed intervention logic helps to identify relevant questions that help to evaluate each policy or measure against some criteria (eg relevance, coherence, effectiveness or efficiency).

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The purpose of the policy was to improve the efficiency of public sector buildings by investing in their renovation. Based on the information that Estonia reported on its climate mitigation policies and measures, complemented by a literature search and interviews with national experts, the main needs, objectives, inputs and outputs associated with this measure were identified.

The policy has been found to effectively reduce the energy consumption of public buildings and the greenhouse gas emissions, with almost 550 buildings across Estonia more energy efficient. The measure is financed by a green investment scheme using resources from the sale of surplus emission quotas under the Kyoto Protocol. Without this policy, it is unlikely that renovations of this kind, and in this time frame, would have occurred.

Policy databases can effectively support external evaluations by providing useful information for defining an intervention logic for different policies or measures. For example, in a recent evaluation study of reported national information [6], the selected a sample of the policies and measures in his database, aimed to be representative of countries, sectors, instrument types and targeted greenhouse gases. An intervention logic is defined for each selected policy, using the information available from databases on policies and measures as a starting point.

The information available from the database was used directly or referred to other relevant resources. Publicly available information was further complemented by national evaluations and other information suggested by national experts. Figure 1 provides an example of an intervention logic for a measure to improve energy efficiency in Estonian public buildings.

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Policy databases provide a useful overview of the different climate policies at national and/or sector level, which makes it possible to benchmark or evaluate several instruments in one sector, objective or country, or even across countries. For example, policy mixes combine instrument types to achieve a single objective.

Of policy mixes aimed at improving energy efficiency in buildings, the development of policy mixes in six countries during the 2000-2020 period, based on information from the databases and complemented by an extensive literature search. The analysis maps policy goals, timeframes, instrument types developed and audiences targeted.

The findings showed that member states implemented a large number of policies and measures to save energy in buildings: regulations, economic incentives, taxes, information, education and voluntary agreements. The policies and measures also targeted different actors: building professionals, owners or tenants, energy suppliers, local or national authorities and financial institutions. Figures 2 and 3 show how policies and measures addressing energy efficiency in buildings in the Netherlands have evolved.

Policy mixes, if well designed, are generally more effective than single instrument types. Their overall effectiveness can be affected, positively or negatively, by interactions between instruments. The illustrated case study shows how evaluating a group of policies and measures can capture and assess the links between policies sharing an objective.

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Shows that national policy mixes targeting energy efficiency in buildings tend to become more complex as more policies and measures are implemented. The Dutch example shows more dynamism, with a significant number of policies and measures that expire and are replaced. Figure 2 illustrates the timeline of Dutch policies and measures to improve energy efficiency in buildings. The Netherlands has a long history of various energy-saving measures in the buildings sector (heating and cooling). Figure 2 shows that the great majority of policies and measures were implemented after 2002, when the first important EU Directive linked to the heating and cooling of buildings, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), was introduced. Of the 29 policies and measures that were adopted in the residential sector, 15 were still in operation in 2017. The measures that ended were mostly financial.

The long-term strategies developed in the Netherlands have helped to establish a coherent and effective policy mix in the building sector. This resulted in a decrease in the energy consumed by residential heating in 2000-2015 (Figure 3). Figure 2 shows that financial, legislative/normative and information/educational instruments dominate. Other types, such as financial measures, and cooperation and voluntary agreements, play only a limited part in the overall policy

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