Energy Management Systems For Bordeaux Businesses: Reducing Costs And Environmental Impact – Healthy soils are the basis for sustainable viticulture, with soil characteristics having a direct impact on the quantity and quality of wine. Soil not only provides water and nutrients to vines, but is also a living environment containing micro- and macro-organisms that perform many ecological functions and provide ecosystem services. These organisms are involved in many processes, from breaking down organic matter to providing minerals to vine roots. They also fight diseases, pests and weeds, and improve the soil structure in terms of its ability to retain water and nutrients. Due to decomposition processes, the carbon content of vineyard soils affects fertility, erosion and biogeochemical cycles, which has important consequences for the global climate. However, common agricultural practices pose a serious threat to biodiversity and related ecosystem services provided by vineyard soils. As consumers increasingly consider environmental aspects in their purchasing decisions, winegrowers must adapt their vineyard management strategies, increasing the need for sustainable pest and weed control methods. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the impact of winemaking practices on the soil ecosystem, biodiversity and biodiversity-based ecosystem services, and provides future prospects for sustainable viticulture.

Vineyards are planted all over the world, mainly between 30 and 50 degrees latitude, in both the northern and southern hemispheres. In 2020, the total area under vines was approximately 7.3 million hectares (wine grapes, table grapes or dried grapes) and the total wine production was 260 million hectoliters. The world market (total exports of all countries) reached 105.8 million hectoliters and 29.6 billion euros in value (Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin [Oiv], 2021). Despite this significant economy, there is growing awareness and concern among wine growers and consumers that certain agricultural practices, in particular the use of pesticides and intensive farming, may have detrimental effects on biodiversity (Paiola et al., 2020), soil quality and related biodiversity with the soil and sustainable wine production (Viers et al., 2013). Therefore, winegrowers must consider and promote soil quality in their vineyards, defined as “the ability of the soil to function within ecosystem boundaries, maintain biological productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health” (Doran and Zeiss, 2000; Riches et al . in., 2013).

Energy Management Systems For Bordeaux Businesses: Reducing Costs And Environmental Impact

Energy Management Systems For Bordeaux Businesses: Reducing Costs And Environmental Impact

However, there is little knowledge about soil threats in vineyards and their impact on wine quality. Therefore, efforts are needed to better understand and protect soil to maintain adequate ecosystem services. Interactions between soil biological communities, as well as the chemical and physical properties of the soil environment, are fundamental to many soil processes, functions and services, such as carbon storage and cycling, nutrient cycling, soil structure formation and pest regulation (Pulleman et al., 2012 ). Soils also play a key role in climate regulation and therefore in mitigating and adapting to climate change, particularly in regulating greenhouse gas emissions (Pulleman et al., 2012). This contrasts with considerable knowledge about the relationship between soil characteristics and wine quality, driven by the prestige and profitability of producing high-quality wine. Future research must focus on better understanding the risks associated with viticultural management practices, as well as opportunities to protect biodiversity, soil functions and services, while maintaining high quality wine production and the aesthetic value of vineyard landscapes. The current work summarizes existing knowledge on the impact of vineyard practices on soil biodiversity and how related ecosystem functions and services can enhance grapevine growth and yield. It then offers some perspectives on mitigating threats to the soil ecosystem and improving biodiversity conditions, drawn from current research projects on these topics.

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The economic importance of wine production in a given territory is one of the most effective motivations for protecting the typicality of wine (Costantini et al., 2012; Vaudour et al., 2015). Consumers’ perception that the quality of wine is closely linked to its geographical origin creates a basis for protecting the rural environment, not only in terms of productivity, but also in terms of landscape aesthetics and lifestyle. Therefore, wine growers in geographically defined production areas pay particular attention to maintaining the quality of the land, thereby increasing the additional value of the wine. Wine marketing often uses the beauty of the vineyard landscape as an effective means of promoting sales and increasing the market value of the product, developed through enotourism (Tempesta et al., 2010). The use of the expressions ‘terroir’, ‘typical’, ‘identity’ and ‘sense of place’, mainly used in the wine sector, closely links the value of geographical origin and landscape with the intrinsic value of the wine (van Leeuwen et al., 2004). In turn, viticulture is often practiced as an extensive monoculture in the region, which reduces the cover and quality of natural or semi-natural habitats. This has a negative impact on the aesthetics of the landscape and the associated biodiversity (Costantini and Barbetti, 2008). Management of the entire agroecosystem, including ecological and cultural practices, should be integrated to improve sustainability and habitat conservation, as well as biodiversity and related ecosystem services (Viers et al., 2013; Chrysargyris et al., 2018). Most of these conservation efforts concern the soil, which is not only one of the most endangered habitats in vineyards (Costantini et al., 2015, 2018), but also provides essential services in wine production.

Terroir can be defined as the interaction of all ecosystem features in a given location that influence the crop phenotype, including vines (grape varieties and rootstocks), climate, and soil (van Leeuwen and Seguin, 2006). Vine is grown around the world in a wide variety of soils, but soil is one of the most important factors influencing wine quality (van Leeuwen and Seguin, 2006). The wine economy of an area, including the emphasis on marketing high- or low-price wines, is linked to soil characteristics as well as environmental factors such as climate, geomorphology, and landscape quality (Costantini et al., 2016). However, the impact of soil management on biodiversity is rarely taken into account.

Based on the latest classification proposed by the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES – La Notte et al., 2017), many soil processes participate in ecosystem services (ES) functions. For example, grape production and the decomposition of organic matter are linked to the supply and regulation of exposure systems. According to Lal (2001), any soil degradation impairs soil quality or impairs functions that contribute to the provision of ES. Therefore, it is important to consider the impact of soil management practices in vineyards on ecosystem functions (Herrick, 2000), especially in the context of climate change (Chrysargyris et al., 2018).

In a Mediterranean or comparable water-limited climate, rainfall tends to concentrate in the winter season and usually does not exceed 400–500 mm per year. In this context, where water is a very limited resource, traditional management is based on intensive weed control to avoid competition with the vines for water and nutrients. Herbicide use increased significantly with the global intensification of pesticide use in the 1950s and 1960s. However, currently tillage and herbicide application are the two most common systems under water-limited conditions (e.g. Biarnès et al., 2004). These practices are associated with soil quality deterioration, e.g., soil erosion, soil compaction, and loss of organic matter (Steenwerth and Belina, 2008; Salome et al., 2014, 2016; Biddoccu et al., 2016). Herbicide use also negatively impacts biodiversity through resource reduction (Kazakou et al., 2016; Hall et al., 2020) or direct effects on organism metabolism and groundwater quality (Louchart et al., 2001).

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In temperate regions, especially under the influence of the sea, the climate is characterized by greater rainfall, more evenly distributed throughout the year, and the soils are more fertile and characterized by greater availability of nutrients (Peregrina et al., 2012). Therefore, plowing or herbicides to reduce competition between vines and weeds are unnecessary and may even be undesirable due to the risk of increased erosion and nutrient leakage from bare soil during heavy rainfall (Biddoccu et al., 2016). Additionally, driving machinery for other pesticide applications can be difficult. Permanent vegetation between the rows, at least in winter and spring, has been widely adopted because vineyards are more susceptible to rainfall-related soil erosion than weed competition. Another option is to use a permanent grass cover in alternating rows, while the rows are plowed once or several times a year, depending on rainfall conditions and the potential negative impact of weed species on grape yields and quality ( Peregrina et al., 2012 ).

Another indirect management technique, called “green manure,” combines tillage or herbicide and permanent cover with seeding of cover crops in winter or spring. These cover crops help improve the nutrient supply of vines (especially nitrogen fixation by legume species), store carbon and mitigate soil erosion during the winter. This practice involves cultivating seeded cover crops damaged by tillage before they compete with vines for nutrients and water. However, soil type, particularly lime content and texture, strongly influence the effectiveness of cover crops in providing these benefits (Ruiz-Colmenero et al., 2011; Salome et al., 2016). As a result, strategies that combine different management practices are more effective in maintaining and improving soil quality (Ruiz-Colmenero et al., 2011). Therefore, flexible, innovative practices are required to address key issues related to the complexity of vineyards and

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