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“energy Policy And Regulation: Shaping The Future Of Gas And Electricity”

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Power System Structures And Markets

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By Yuehong Lu Yuehong Lu Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Zafar A. Khan Zafar A. Khan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, * , Manuel S. Alvarez-Alvarado Manuel S. Alvarez-Alvarado Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3, Yang Zhang Yang Zhang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Zhijia Huang Zhijia Huang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 and Muhammad Imran Muhammad Imran Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 4

Received: 3 May 2020 / Revised: 31 May 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020

Inefficient Building Electrification Will Require Massive Buildout Of Renewable Energy And Seasonal Energy Storage

Meeting the growing demand for energy and limiting its impact on the environment are two intertwined issues facing us in the 21st century. Governments in various countries have worked together to develop regulations and related policies to promote environmentally friendly renewable energy production along with conservation strategies and technological innovation. It is important to develop sustainable energy policies and provide relevant and appropriate policy recommendations for end users. This study presents an overview of sustainable energy policy to promote renewable energy by introducing the history of energy policy development in five countries viz. United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Denmark and China. A review of articles aimed at promoting the development of sustainable energy policies and their modeling has been carried out. We note that the energy efficiency standard is one of the most popular energy saving strategies in buildings, which is dynamic and renewed based on currently available technologies. Feed-in tariffs have been widely used to encourage the use of renewable energy sources, which has been successfully demonstrated in various countries. Building energy performance certification schemes should be improved in terms of a reliable database system and information transparency to pave the way for future net zero energy buildings and smart cities.

Energy plays a key role both in people’s lives and in the development of economies. There are three typical transitions in energy use: 1. coal replaced wood as the main energy source; 2. Oil replaced coal and became the dominant energy source; 3. Transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. In 2018, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimated that 80% of energy was derived from fossil fuels, specifically 36% from oil, 13.2% from coal, and 31% from natural gas. Nuclear energy and renewable energy represent 11% and 8% respectively [1]. Since the three major energy crises—the 1973 oil crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, and the 1990 oil price spike—the government has worked to encourage consumers to conserve energy and use renewable energy sources. Energy consumption can cause serious environmental pollution. The result of the excessive burning of fossil fuels is the depletion of natural resources and the constant increase in carbon dioxide emissions, which is said to be responsible for the increase in average global temperatures. In the IPCC report (2014) [2], the best-case scenario assumes that greenhouse gas emissions will peak by 2020 and then decline significantly. Meanwhile, the global average temperature may fall between 0.2 °C and 1 °C above the long-term average in 2100. In the models of Giorgetta et al. [3], one of the worst possible scenarios reflects a doubling of CO

And shows an average global temperature rise of about 3–4 °C by 2100, but the global average temperature in 2100 is projected to actually fall between 1.5 °C and 2 °C below the 1950–1980 average. A 2°C increase compared to pre-industrial levels is expected to cause significant global climate change with adverse social, human and economic consequences. Therefore, governments and concerned members of civil society are engaged in implementing appropriate but practical policies and measures in response to avoid such a rise in temperature. On November 2, 2014, in Copenhagen, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the leaders of the United Nations (UN) expressed their concerns about the near future and the main findings of the fifth synthesis report of the IPCC (IPCC, 2014). The UN Secretary General stated: “Leaders must act, time is not on our side” [4]. Governments are expected to take immediate action to address the issues of the energy crisis and environmental problems. World governments have been really slow to respond to this situation. A recent initiative is promising, i.e. The 2015 Paris Climate Agreement, with the US and China agreeing to abide by the agreement.

The challenges of increasing energy demand and environmental pollution require policies and management of energy resources [5]. A systemic transition to more efficient energy regimes requires a strategically designed sequence of actions that includes all political levels, from local to global [6]. A wide range of policy tools have been introduced, such as tradable emission rights, taxes and subsidies, as well as regulation such as feed-in tariffs for renewable energy production [6]. Due to China’s rapid economic growth, excessive energy consumption and strong carbonization of the economy, it is becoming an important player in the oil and gas markets. US energy policy focuses on four traditional goals: 1. A secure, abundant, and diverse energy supply; 2. Robust and reliable energy infrastructure; 3. Favorable and stable energy price; 4. Environmentally sustainable production and use of energy [7]. In order to face the challenge of climate change, the European Union (EU) has adopted a series of rather ambitious policies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% in 2020 compared to 1990, increasing the share of renewable sources in final energy consumption. to 20% in 2020 and realize a 20% energy saving in 2020 compared to the official base level of energy consumption [7]. Adequately designed policy frameworks are critical to enabling sufficient private capital to flow into clean energy investments. It is essential to understand how to create effective clean energy investment frameworks and the appropriate risk/return balance.

The Role Of Energy Efficiency In Shaping Kenya’s Energy Market

However, previous studies on energy policy have mostly focused on the development of specific energy policy (e.g. energy performance certification of buildings) in different countries or on renewable energy law and policies in a particular country. It is essential to understand the history of the development of these successive sustainable energy policies in some countries in order to provide guidance for the design of appropriate and effective energy policies for other countries. Overall, the document provides a unique, unified benchmark for future work on renewable and sustainable energy policy development.

Our paper presents an overview of sustainable energy policies in five countries, i.e. United States of America (US), Germany, United Kingdom (UK), Denmark and China. A summary of how to design policy through its interaction with the economy and the environment is then provided. Section 4 details three important sustainable energy policies, viz. energy efficiency standards (EES), feed-in tariffs (FiT) and building energy performance certification (BEPC) schemes.

In the context of the EU, it has repeatedly stated that it is at the forefront of global action against climate change. In December 2019, the EU announced a new European climate law, the “European Green Deal”, which aims to respond to the growing climate crisis by achieving net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the EU by 2050 [8]. Achieving this ambitious goal requires a comprehensive policy framework that covers the climate, energy, environmental, industrial, economic and social aspects of this unprecedented process [9]. The four pillars of the deal would be carbon pricing, sustainable investment, industrial policy and a just transition [10].

Maya-Drysdale et al. [11] evaluated the vision strategy in the new EU Green Deal for the energy planning of eight European cities using an analytical framework of critical elements of strategic energy planning for 100% renewable systems. Despite ambitions to reduce carbon emissions, cities are not tackling the vision strategy very effectively. Energy planning is still tied to the urban paradigm and tradition, which limits strategic planning and does not fit well with the vision strategy [11].

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The European Green Deal can be successfully implemented by smartly promoting deep decarbonisation by accompanying its economic and industrial transformation

Future of electricity generation, future of the energy industry, electricity in the future, the future of electricity, the future of energy, wireless energy the future of electricity, future energy policy, shaping the future of work, financial regulation law and policy, shaping the future, electricity and energy, the future of green energy


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