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Energy Trading In Montpellier: Exploring Peer-to-peer Transactions

Energy Trading In Montpellier: Exploring Peer-to-peer Transactions

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By Arne Surmann Arne Surmann Scilit Google Scholar 1, *, † , Stefan P. M. Chantrel Stefan P. M. Chantrel Scilit Google Scholar 1, † , Manuel Utz Manuel Utz Scilit Google Scholar 2, † , Robert Kohrs Kohrs Scilit Google Scholar 1 and Jens Strüker Jens Strüker Scilit Google Scholar 2

Received: 11 January 2022 / Revised: 16 February 2022 / Accepted: 21 February 2022 / Published: 26 February 2022

Multilateral Benefit Sharing From Digital Sequence Information Will Support Both Science And Biodiversity Conservation

The use of photovoltaic (PV) energy and the participation of residents in energy communities are becoming increasingly important elements of decentralized energy systems. However, ownership structures are still too complex to enable electricity consumers to become consumers. We have developed a token-based system to gradually transfer PV ownership rights from the original investor to residential and small commercial users. To demonstrate the system, we created a simulation of a mixed-use building from 27 countries with different load profiles, ranging from single student apartments to office units with battery electric vehicles, in a German energy community. As a result, we show that the proposed system design is economically viable for all involved stakeholders over the simulation horizon of 2022 to 2036, with a payback period of <5 years, 4 years to distribute 50% of the PV tokens, and total share of own consumption of 69%.

The transition of the German energy sector towards small-scale, distributed electricity resources has led to a strong growth of renewable energy users in the last decade [1, 2]. According to [1], a large proportion of the more than 1.6 million installed PV systems consists of systems with less than 10 kilowatt peak (kWp) installed generation. The potential for further development is even greater, as more than 3.8 million apartments in residential buildings are suitable for equipment with building-integrated photovoltaic systems [3]. Despite their importance and future potential, the expansion of photovoltaic systems within renewable energy communities (RECs) is currently slow [4]. In addition to the legal framework, this is mainly due to the difficulty of individual residents to acquire shares of photovoltaic systems without major organizational or technical efforts and to differentiate the distribution of generated electricity on a verifiable basis [2]. So, instead of buying individual PV shares, consumers share PV systems in RECs through so-called “third-party ownership” (TPO) models [5]. This can be designed as a ‘lease’ or ‘power purchase agreement’ (PPA) [5]. Leasing involves a payment by the user to the PV system owner of a fixed monthly amount, regardless of the PV system’s energy production. In a PPA, the user pays the owner a predetermined fixed price per unit of energy produced [6]. In both cases, however, ownership of the PV system is not transferred to the user. Users only receive usage rights. This only partially fulfills the goal of an inclusive energy transition according to the UN Sustainable Development Goals [2 ], as residents gain access to renewable energy but are denied active participation by purchasing PV shares. To enable such participation, we developed a blockchain-based system and simulated its technical and economic viability for all stakeholders, based on a mixed residential and commercial building at REC in Germany. By doing so, we answer the following research questions:

RQ1: How can a technical solution be designed for a simple, fast and verifiable acquisition of shared PV systems within an energy community? RQ2: What are the financial benefits for the stakeholders involved (consumers, energy suppliers, etc.)?

Energy Trading In Montpellier: Exploring Peer-to-peer Transactions

By enabling real small-scale supply to consumers, we create financial incentives for demand management, which we expect to have a positive impact on the overall electricity system. First, it does this by timing the generation and consumption of renewable energy, which is also applicable to energy communities where production sites are not in direct proximity to consumption (such as civil energy communities), and second, it includes also spatial mapping within RECs, where mapping also frees up network capacity.

Evolution Of Smart Grids Towards The Internet Of Energy: Concept And Essential Components For Deep Decarbonisation

To answer the research questions, we first conduct a literature review Section 2. In it, we present the current state of RECs in Europe and describe the changes in the business models of energy utilities and the role of blockchain technology in this context. In Section 3, we provide the technical details of the aforementioned demonstration building, including the energy consumption based on the user behavior of its future residents, the photovoltaic energy generation, and the energy management application. In Section 4, we design a system that shows how users in such buildings become users by earning tokens through their own consumption and redeeming them for PV shares. The model is evaluated from an economic and technical perspective in Section 5. We conclude with a conclusion and an outlook for future applications and extensions.

Energy communities are on the rise worldwide as they allow electricity consumers to advance the decarbonization of the energy system while benefiting economically [2, 7]. Unlike microgrids, energy communities do not necessarily need to be physically connected, i.e. through network infrastructure [8]. In this way, they can involve the cooperation of individual users within residential buildings as well as several neighborhoods, with the common goal of expanding renewable energy and increasing their own share of locally generated renewable electricity. For example, [9] investigates how the expansion of residential PV systems affects self-consumption levels. [1] extends this approach by combining a photovoltaic system with a storage system and calculating the achievable annual savings of residents in energy communities. A similar research question has been investigated by [8, 10, 11]. Approaches to optimize energy flows in energy communities are also being developed, studied and tested in the scientific literature [12, 13, 14, 15]. Legal frameworks as well as challenges are explored by [9, 16]. In fact, the lack of sufficient legislation to ensure viability is one of the reasons for the delayed further development of energy communities [17, 18]. In addition to these specific research questions, [7] provides a very comprehensive survey of energy communities. The study examines not only the social interaction of their members, but also the technological feasibility of such communities, as well as the social and technical implications. In this context, [19] performed a techno-economic analysis focusing on the Japanese power system. An examination of whether RECs, as defined in the European Union’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED II), can be a useful facilitator for future energy systems is provided by [4]. According to Article 22 of RED II, a REC is a community in which users can produce, consume, distribute and trade renewable energy and in which each member must have access to and co-ownership of renewable assets [4]. In addition to the REC defined in RED II, with the Civil Energy Community (CEC), the directive on common rules for the internal electricity market [20] provides another construct for energy communities. The main differences are that RECs include all forms of energy and demand within spatial proximity to the RE project, while CECs only account for electricity, while having no spatial constraints. For this study, we focus on REC because it offers the most benefits to the electric grid when implementing local energy management, but the framework can be applied to multiple forms of EC. In a broader sense, our model could be interesting for ECs in rural areas, allowing members there to first gain transparency about generated and consumed amounts of energy, gain ownership of small-scale energy assets, and finally build a local energy market [21] .

How renewable energy is generated and distributed in RECs, the benefits to their members and the legal challenges as well as the social implications have already been explored. What’s missing, however, is an easily accessible path to

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