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“hydrogen As An Emerging Energy Carrier: Applications And Challenges”

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The Safe Use Of Hydrogen As An Energy Carrier

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Hafr Al Batin, P.O. Box 1803, Hafr Al Batin 39524, Saudi Arabia

Received: May 11, 2022 / Revised: June 19, 2022 / Accepted: June 20, 2022 / Published: June 28, 2022

A general increase in anthropogenically induced greenhouse gas emissions has resulted from world population growth and a growing appetite for clean energy, industrial products and consumer use. In addition, well-established, advanced and emerging countries are all looking to fossil fuel and petroleum resources to support their aviation, electricity utilities, industrial sectors and essential consumer processing products. There is a growing trend to overcome these challenging concerns and achieve the Paris Agreement priorities as emerging technological advances in clean energy technologies progress. Hydrogen is expected to be implemented in various manufacturing applications as a key fuel in the future development of energy transport materials and manufacturing processes. This document summarizes recent hydrogen developments and technologies in fuel refining, hydrocarbon processing, materials manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, aircraft construction, electronics and other hydrogen applications. It also highlights the existing industrialization landscape and describes prospective innovations, including theoretical scientific advances, production of green raw materials, potential exploration and integration of renewable resources. Furthermore, this article discusses some socioeconomic implications of hydrogen as a green resource.

The global community views sustainable development as a long-term issue because of the persistent challenges posed by dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and worsening environmental conditions. The main drivers of this fundamental shift are rising energy demands, volatile fossil fuel prices, and massive greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-powered automobiles and industries [1, 2, 3]. With the global population expected to exceed 8 billion by 2030, demand for energy is expected to rise concurrently. Renewable energy sources such as wind, solar, hydroelectric and geothermal have received a lot of attention in recent decades. These types of energy do not generate gaseous or liquid transport fuels. Its erratic and sporadic existence limits its applicability [4]. In addition, invasive plants, [5] food waste (particularly tree cuttings and agricultural crop residues) [6] are also low-cost and widely available for transformation into clean energy production. Lignocellulosic raw materials, food scraps, municipal waste, [7, 8, 9] agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, animal waste [9, 10] and mixed plastics [11] are plentiful and inexpensive. Energy is a necessary component of human life, social civilization and economic growth. For over twenty decades, conventional fossil fuels such as coal, gasoline and natural gas have been used, resulting in unsustainable oil use, unrestricted exploration and significant pollution. As a result, these non-renewable commodities are approaching degradation and exhaustion at an alarming rate. Specifically, successive global population growth and rapid economic change are continually increasing energy consumption and amplifying the energy crisis [12]. Furthermore, overexploitation and excessive consumption of fossil fuels has resulted in significant environmental pollution. As a result, most countries are eager to develop an alternative source of renewable energy [13, 14].

Pdf) Formulating And Implementing Public Policy For New Energy Carriers

Hydrogen has many favorable attributes, including overall storage capacity, efficiency, renewability, cleanliness, mass distribution, high conversion, zero emissions, sources, versatility and rapid recovery, making it an excellent choice as an energy source for heat and power, among many others [15, 16, 17]. As a result, it is considered the greenest and most promising energy source of the 21st century. It is critical for industrial applications such as ammonia production, petroleum refining and gas-water switching reactions. Figure 1 illustrates how supply and demand tend to fluctuate; Hydrogen is likely to be very flexible, and as a result, hydrogen manufacturing has received a lot of media coverage around the world.

Industrialization in traditional oil upgrading sectors such as hydrodesulfurization, hydrogenation and ammonia processing has recently experienced a dramatic increase in demand for hydrogen. In industrial processing, most liquid compressed hydrogen gas is prepared commercially using a compression method because of its cost-effectiveness and readily available supplies of hydrogen [18]. However, hydrogen from renewable resources such as lignocellulosic biomass or water splitting can also be generated by solar energy. Hydrogen from different sources can be obtained in several ways, such as through microorganisms, biofuels, petroleum-based liquids or water electrolysis [19, 20]. An illustration of the various hydrogen production methods is shown in Figure 2. Chemical heat reforming is based on methane catalysis (typically above 800°C) using steam to generate carbon dioxide and hydrogen [18]. The formed CO then interacts with water vapor to generate H

Through the water-gas exchange reaction. Multiple hydrocarbon-based pathways for hydrogen generation involve enhanced alkaline renovations, thermal cracking modification, partial oxidation, and steam reforming.

Although hydrogen has impressive power generation capabilities, only a limited amount is used for such activities. A significant amount of commercially generated hydrogen is used in various industries, including metallurgy, petroleum refining and recycling, fertilizers, and chemical processing (Figure 3). In the area of ​​hydrogen processing [6, 19, 21, 22, 23] and storage [24, 25, 26], several prominent research papers have been published. However, with the growth of modern hydrogen industries, evidence for the availability of new hydrogen applications is limited, especially in the aerospace, marine and pharmaceutical industries.

Why We Need Green Hydrogen

As hydrogen does not naturally exist as a molecule, it is synthesized by converting some primary hydrogen-containing sources such as water or carbohydrates. Current estimates indicate that about 48%, 30% and 18% of hydrogen is derived from natural gas, naphtha reforming and coal gasification, respectively [27]. Regrettably, most conventional methods of producing hydrogen from fossil fuels cause significant greenhouse gas emissions, increasing environmental pollution and high energy use. As a result, there is an increased focus on deploying emerging technology for the production of hydrogen from sustainable and nuclear sources, in conjunction with progressively stringent and globally applicable environmental protection legislation [28]. These potentially transformative developments include water electrolysis, biomass, and nuclear/chemical conversion pathways. Despite these facts, hydrogen production can impact the ecosystem, as any system that relies on current or new technology uses a certain amount of raw chemicals and electricity, resulting in a net environmental loss [29, 30, 31, 32, 33 ] We cannot critically analyze the economic and environmental benefits of various hydrogen production technologies unless we have a comprehensive understanding of every aspect of the mechanistic process. This research attempts to reinforce current research on the following hydrogen generation technologies and their applications: petrochemical/hydrocarbon fuel refining, additive production, hydrocarbon processing, fuel cells, materials synthesis, electronics, pharmaceuticals, use in ships and industry aircraft and other applications of hydrogen [30, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38]. The article summarizes the challenges and progress associated with the use of hydrogen.

Hydrogen is the first element in the periodic table and cannot be subdivided into other elements through chemical reactions. Hydrogen is distinguished by being the most basic and abundant natural element, and is designated by the letter H. Hydrogen is, in fact, very important in the world of chemistry. In fact, it is so reactive that it almost always forms a constituent (substance) when mixed with other elements. Compounds are made up of two or more elements of the same or different atoms that are formed when hydrogen forms a bond with another element. Table 1 contains a comprehensive list of the essential properties of hydrogen.

The most abundant gas in the universe is hydrogen. It is colorless, odorless, tasteless and constitutes approximately 75% of the mass of the universe [40]. Despite the reality that hydrogen is abundant throughout the universe, it is not found naturally as a free element or gas. Furthermore, it naturally persists in compounds with various other elements. Water

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