“hydrogen’s Potential: A Game-changer In Gas And Electricity Sectors” – This article has been revised in accordance with ScienceX’s editorial process and policies. The editors highlighted the following features while ensuring the credibility of the content:

Changes in radiative forcing due to an influx of 1 Tg of hydrogen. The main changes in the radiative forcing due to the influx of 1 Tg of hydrogen; methane (green bars), ozone (yellow), stratospheric water vapor (purple), and aerosols (red). Credit: Earth and Environment Communications (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s43247-023-00857-8

“hydrogen’s Potential: A Game-changer In Gas And Electricity Sectors”

The study fills a gap in our knowledge about the climatic impacts of hydrogen, a technology central to the energy transition.

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Burning hydrogen emits only water vapor and oxygen. Instead, it is hydrogen leakage from production, transportation, and use that increases global warming.

Hydrogen is not a greenhouse gas, but its chemical reactions in the atmosphere affect greenhouse gases such as methane, ozone, and water vapor in the stratosphere. In this way, hydrogen emissions can cause global warming, despite their lack of direct radiative properties.

The study was led by Dr Maria Sand, senior scientist at CICERO, and colleagues with collaborators from the UK, France and the US.

“The climate impacts of hydrogen have been a topic of research. However, few papers based on single model studies confirm the estimated global warming potential (GWP100) of 11.6,” Sand said.

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“We used five different atmospheric chemistry models and looked at changes in methane, ozone and water vapor in the atmosphere,” Sand said.

“Hydrogen interacts with many biogeochemical processes. In our estimates, we included soil uptake, photochemical production of hydrogen, lifetimes of hydrogen and methane, and interactions between hydrogen and methane,” Sand said.

The study is the most comprehensive assessment of the climate impact of hydrogen to date, thanks to advanced and new use of existing climate models.

“We assessed the uncertainties, and our study forms a strong basis for policy decision-making on hydrogen,” Sand said.

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“The global warming potential of 11.6 is significant, and our study clearly shows the importance of reducing hydrogen leakage. We lack the technology to monitor and detect hydrogen leakage on the required scale, but new technology is being developed as the industry adapts,” he said. sand.

The potential benefit of shifting to a hydrogen economy depends on the scale of the hydrogen spill and the extent to which hydrogen replaces fossil fuels.

“Many open questions remain, and our group will continue to expand our knowledge to ensure timely and accurate decisions on key mitigation technology,” Sand said.

Further information: Maria Sand et al, A Multi-Model Assessment of the Global Warming Potential of Hydrogen, Earth-Environment Communications (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s43247-023-00857-8

Conditions Of Sensibility Of Photo Electric Cells With Alkali Metals And Hydrogen . Of Illumination. When Light Is Incident Upon The Metal, Which Is The Cathode Ofthe Cell, And A Potential Difference Is

Citation: New Study Estimates Global Warming Potential of Hydrogen (2023, June 7) Retrieved August 10, 2023 from https:///news/2023-06-global-potential-hydrogen.html

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The Potential Of Hydrogen For Decarbonization: Evaluating Zero Carbon “green” Hydrogen Against Renewable And Nuclear Power

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The European Commission’s 2030 renewable hydrogen targets will require massive amounts of renewable generation, amounting to about half of all renewable generation in the EU in 2019, according to data from S&P Global Platts Analytics.

The European Commission in July unveiled one of its most ambitious legislative packages ever, publishing plans for new laws across many sectors designed to achieve its goal of cutting greenhouse gas emissions by 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels, a so-called Suitable for ‘Program 55’.

The European Union has also set a target of 40 GW electrolyser capacity by 2030, producing 10 million metric tons/year of renewable hydrogen. Such volumes would require additional renewable energy generation of up to 477 TWh, more than half of all EU renewable generation in 2019, Platts Analytics said in a report released August 13.

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“Achieving the target of 10 million metric tons will require more hydrogen renewable electricity through 2030 than the entire energy sector in 2010-2020 (about 380 TWh),” she said.

For hydrogen, the EU’s “Fit for 55” proposal includes a renewable quota of 50% for hydrogen used in industry and a target of 2.6% for renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO) in transport by 2030. Hydrogen and its derivatives are expected to achieve Even the most successful RFNBO.

Platts Analytics estimates that about 11 million metric tons of hydrogen will be needed to meet demand targets, with about 5.2 million metric tons going to industry and 5.8 million metric tons to transportation.

However, the nature of the targeted sectors means that much hydrogen will need to be converted to ammonia, resulting in large conversion losses, resulting in lower final energy use or the need for larger amounts of input.

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The current demand for hydrogen in the EU industrial sector is around 8 to 10 million metric tons/year, with 45% for refining, 38% for ammonia production and 8% for methanol.

In transport, the EU’s hydrogen focus is on the aviation and marine sectors, where there is limited potential for direct electrification.

“While the industry sector focuses on replacing existing fossil hydrogen, the transportation sector goal will lead to the deployment of new technologies such as fuel cells and the adoption of hydrogen as a new fuel,” Platts Analytics said.

The package also included measures for hydrogen in marine fuels, hydrogen fueling stations every 150 km along the routes of the Trans-European Transport Network and tax incentives for the use of renewable, low-carbon hydrogen for end consumers.

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In addition, the legislative proposals target tougher CO2 emissions standards for cars and vans, which could support the development of hydrogen fueling for heavy vehicles, and revisions of the EU emissions trading system.

Questions have been raised about how the EU plans to meet the production target of 10 million metric tons per year, given the use rate limitations of powering the electrolyzer from renewables, and the vast amounts of energy needed to reach the target.

The European Union has stressed requirements that green hydrogen generation must come from “extra” renewable energy or a reduction of existing capacity, with the possibility of using renewable facilities supplied with power.

Platts Analytics said the potential surplus of wind and solar power for grid-connected electrolyzers in key European markets will be less than 6 TWh/year by 2030.

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A source in the European Commission said it was focused on building hydrogen capacity quickly, and expected most electrolyzers to be connected to the grid, with power purchase agreements and guarantees of origin to ensure renewable credentials for the electricity used.

The source said the European Commission’s upcoming revisions to the Renewable Energy Directive will include amendments to renewable energy tariffs and addition requirements for electrolyzers.

The source said that the intensification of hydrogen will be gradual, as well as the construction of additional renewable energy.

The source said that the industrial applications envisioned by the European Commission will provide first use cases for renewable hydrogen, with a subsequent expansion of transportation, while the commercial feasibility study for seasonal energy storage of hydrogen will come at a later date.

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S&P Global Platts assessed the cost of producing renewable hydrogen by alkaline electrolysis in Europe at €5.74/kg ($6.73/kg) on ​​August 20 (Netherlands, including capex). PEM electrolysis production was assessed at €7.08/kg, while blue hydrogen production by steam methane reforming (including carbon, CCS and CAPEX) was €3.12/kg.

Proposed electrolyzer projects due online by 2024 in the European Union reached 5.2 gigawatts at the start of July, according to Platts Analytics’ hydrogen production asset database, which is already approaching the EU’s target of 6 gigawatts by that date.

A project survey conducted by the European Hydrogen Alliance listed 997 proposed projects across the EU and its close neighbours,

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