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Impact Of Climate Change On Natural Resources Pdf
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Drylands And Climate Change
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By Ali Raza Ali Raza Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Ali Razzaq Ali Razzaq Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, Sundas Saher Mehmood Sundas Saher Mehmood Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Xiling Zou Xiling Zou Scilit Google Preprints. Scholar 1, * , Xuekun Zhang Xuekun Zhang Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Yan Lv Yan Lv Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 and Jinsong Xu Jinsong Xu Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1
Key Laboratory of Olive Crop Biology and Genetic Improvement, Research Institute of Olive Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Wuhan 430062, China
The Missing Risks Of Climate Change
Received: 28 November 2018 / Revised: 16 January 2019 / Accepted: 28 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
Agriculture and climate change are intrinsically related to each other in several aspects, as climate change is the main cause of biotic and abiotic stresses, which adversely affect the agriculture of a region. Land and its agriculture are affected by climate change in various ways, e.g. variations in annual rainfall, average temperature, heat waves, modifications in weeds, pests or microbes, global change in atmospheric CO
Or the ozone level and sea level fluctuations. The threat of a varying global climate has largely attracted the attention of scientists, as these variations impart a negative impact on global crop production and endanger global food security. According to some projected reports, agriculture is considered the most threatened activity adversely affected by climate change. To this day, food security and ecosystem resilience are the most pressing issues worldwide. Climate-smart agriculture is the only way to reduce the negative impact of climate variability on crop adaptation, before it drastically affects global crop production. In this review paper, we summarize the causes of climate change, the stresses caused by climate change, impacts on crops, modern breeding technologies and biotechnological strategies to address climate change in order to develop climate-resilient crops. Revolutions in genetic engineering techniques can also help overcome food security issues against extreme environmental conditions by producing transgenic plants.
Crop adaptation; climate change; genetic engineering; Genome wide association studies (GWAS). index assisted selection (MSA); molecular reproduction; hormonal responses; normal responses
Climate Change Impacts On Renewable Energy Supply
Natural systems, human health and agricultural production have been badly affected by catastrophic environmental changes . With the rapid increase in world population, there is a corresponding increase in food demand due to concerns about the stability of the global environment. Water availability, air pollution and soil fertility have a large impact on agricultural productivity . With abrupt changes in environmental conditions, harsh effects on plant productivity develop into large intensities due to the direct and indirect effects of abiotic stresses. Due to continuous deforestation and excessive use of fossil fuels, the concentration of CO
Are the main drivers of the greenhouse effect and higher average global temperatures . The effects of climate change and environmental variability are mainly estimated by the number of stress periods, their impact on daily life and the damage to agricultural crops . In developing countries, agricultural yield is mainly affected due to adverse environmental conditions, hence high temperature and excess CO
Accumulation has forced scientists to devise new strategies to deal with less predictable challenges . To address these constraints and ensure food security, there is a need to produce new climate-smart crop varieties . Plant growth and yield are greatly affected by abiotic stresses. Under natural climatic conditions, plants often face numerous stresses such as waterlogging, drought, heat, cold, and salinity [7, 8]. Abiotic factors also include UV-B, light intensities, flooding, gas emissions, and physical and chemical factors that cause more stress . In the 21st century, the Earth’s average temperature is expected to increase from 2 to 4.5 °C. According to the IPCC-2014 (http://www.ipcc.ch/), the time period between the 19th and 21st centuries is considered to be the period that experienced the greatest increase in temperature . Extreme rainfall events may well cause flood disasters, while lack or complete absence of rainfall for a longer period of time leads to drought trends . The planet’s environment is constantly changing, and industrialization is one of the main factors for the increase in temperature. Due to extreme weather events, the frequency of global warming is expected to increase, which will eventually disrupt the ecosystem worldwide . All living organisms such as plants, animals, fish and humans have been affected by extreme environmental conditions around the world. The risk to the world’s climate conditions has been of concern to everyone because crop yields can be compromised by fluctuations in various environmental factors that can jeopardize food security. Recent studies reported that developed countries have higher vulnerability to climate changes (8–11%) than developing countries [ 13 , 14 ]. Climate change and food insecurity are the two main issues of the 21st century. About 815 million people are undernourished, hindering sustainable development programs to achieve the global goal of ending hunger by 2030 . Food security and agricultural productivity are significantly affected by adverse weather conditions. With rising temperatures, production of major crops has apparently declined worldwide . By the end of this century global crop production is likely to decline as climate severity increases from 2.6 to 4 °C. The decrease in the productivity of these crops means the main threat to food security, especially in the rapidly increasing world population . The population is assumed to increase to about 9 billion in 2050 and food needs are expected to escalate by about 85% . Climatic influences are exacerbated by current cropping programs with low variation and increased concentration of inputs and unstable productivity due to environmental changes in crops . Increased frequency of drought and heavy rainfall, temperature fluctuations, salinity and insect attacks are expected to reduce crop productivity leading to higher threats of famine . Crop adaptability has suffered not only as a result of temperature fluctuations, but also due to rainfall . Currently, the main task is to reduce the pressure on food security . This review emphasizes the effect of weather fluctuations on crop production. The following sections describe the overview of climate change, pressures produced by climate change, impacts on agricultural crops, strategies to cope with extreme environmental conditions and some recent genetically modified approaches to develop transgenic plants against abiotic stresses.
Plant physiology has been greatly affected by climate variability through various means. Environmental extremes and climate variability have increased the chances of many plant stresses . Climate change affects crop production through direct, indirect and socio-economic impacts as outlined in Figure 1. In addition, climate change events (drought, floods, high temperature, storms, etc.) are increasing dramatically as reported by the Food and of Agriculture (FAO) and as shown in Figure 2.
Chapter 15: Small Islands
Boyer reported that climate change has reduced crop yields by up to 70% since 1982 . According to the 2007 FAO study (http://www.fao.org/home/en/), all cultivated areas in the world are affected by climate change and only 3.5% of areas are safe from environmental constraints ( for details see table 3.7 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a1075e/a1075e00.htm) . While the effects of abiotic stresses on crop yield are difficult to quantify precisely, it is believed that abiotic stresses have a substantial effect on crop production depending on the extent of damage to the total cultivated area. In the future, the productivity of major crops is estimated to decline in many countries of the world due to global warming, water scarcity and other environmental impacts [28, 29].
Based on national crop yields and questionnaire surveys, large differences in vulnerabilities to current climate change across Europe were identified. In Northern Europe, short crop growth duration and cool temperature are the main concerns, while extreme temperatures and low rainfall limit
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