- Impact Of Climate Change On Wetlands Pdf
- Rising Tide: Will Climate Change Drown Coastal Wetlands?
- Landscape Resiliency And Climate Change
- Measuring Conservation Progress In North America
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Impact Of Climate Change On Wetlands Pdf
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Rising Tide: Will Climate Change Drown Coastal Wetlands?
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By Vanessa Novoa Vanessa Novoa Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2 , Octavio Rojas Octavio Rojas Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2, * , Ramón Ahumada-Rudolph Ramón Ahumada-Rudolph Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 3 , Katia Sáez Preprints.org Google Scholar 4 , Pablo Fierro Pablo Fierro Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 5 and Carolina Rojas Carolina Rojas Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 6
Water resources center for agriculture and mining, Fondap CRHIAM, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción PC 4070411, Chile
Landscape Resiliency And Climate Change
Department of Territorial Planning, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales-Centro EULA, Universidad de Concepción, Víctor Lamas 1290, Concepción PC 160-C, Chile
Department of Statistics, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Concepción, Víctor Lamas 1290, Concepción PC 160-C, Chile
Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales, Centro de Desarrollo Urbano Sustentable CEDEUS, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago PC 7500000, Chile
Received: 28 January 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
Modelling Impacts Of Climate Change And Anthropogenic Activities On Inflows And Sediment Loads Of Wetlands: Case Study Of The Anzali Wetland
Ecosystems that provide many benefits to human settlements; however, they are greatly threatened by the lack of planning tools and human activities related to urban growth. Understanding their function and condition is important for their protection and care. Two watersheds with different degrees of urbanization, Rocuant-Andalién (more urbanized) and Tubul-Raqui (less urbanized), were analyzed using temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, granulometry, fecal coliform, and macroinvertebrate assemblage variables during summer. and winter. In both wetlands, salinity, temperature and surface sediment composition were observed, regulated by oceanic influence and changes in freshwater reservoirs. In the Rocuant-Andalién wetland, the increase in pH, dissolved oxygen, percentage of gravel, and coliform concentration was greater. The negative effects of irrigation on macroinvertebrate assemblage structure inhabiting wetlands have been reported; Greater wealth and wealth (8.5 times more) were recorded in the Tubul-Raqui wetland than in the urban wetland. Multivariate statistical analysis describes the evolution of these complex systems.
Development and use of coastal areas have increased in recent years, resulting in significant environmental changes . Therefore, these areas have shown different population and growth patterns related to global urbanization patterns and demographic changes [ 2 , 3 ]. Coastal areas cover only 10% of the Earth’s surface but are home to 54% of the world’s population [4, 5] and have a population 2.6 times that of inland areas. [6, 7].
These areas provide ecosystem services that contribute well to human needs, that is, microclimates, hydrological regulation, tourism and natural resources, among others [8, 9], related to different ecosystems, with wetlands standing out. Coastal wetlands are places of transition between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, salt marshes and/or rivers; They are often limited to inland seas or low-lying intertidal zones [10, 11]. Land use has had many impacts on these ecosystems, mainly affecting their fragmentation, land loss and degradation. Indeed, urban development is considered the most important anthropogenic stressor, responsible for the loss of more than 67% of coastal wetlands, exerting significant effects on aquatic ecosystems in changing the habitat, changing the water quality and other activities [2, 12, 13, 14].
Coastal wetlands are nutrient sinks for the coastal zone, stabilizers (temperature and humidity) and protectors of human settlements from floods, storms and tsunamis [15, 16]. . They are defined as complex ecosystems due to their hydrodynamic characteristics, where they can add fresh water unidirectionally through rain, groundwater or input from rivers and then bidirectionally through the salt water is affected by the sea level, the prevailing winds and the local morphology. to determine salt distribution and stratification. It affects the chemical properties of water [17, 18] and therefore the aquatic biota. Coastal wetlands are classified as biologically diverse and productive systems [19, 20], because they are inhabited by a variety of plants and animals, including hydrophyte plants with species of trees and plants. They provide a basic habitat for epiphyte bacteria, benthic algae, macroinvertebrates, and fishes and often show significant differences in their salinity and physical stress gradients [21, 22]. Macroinvertebrates in these areas provide economic support in parts of the food chain for vertebrates such as amphibians, fish and seabirds [23, 24, 25].
Pdf] Impacts Of Climate Change On Wetland Ecosystems
The availability or stability of salt marshes and/or estuaries is determined by the interaction of hydrological regimes; sedimentation rate; biomass production; food production; and activities driven by runoff, salinity and sea level rise [11, 26, 27, 28, 29]. Changes in these ecosystems affect water residence time, water flow, pH, salinity, and temperature [ 30 , 31 ]. Because coastal wetlands are very complex, multifactorial and geographically related, human activities and climate change will have significant effects on their functioning [32, 33], e.g. affecting local plant species, increasing the number and distance between fences , decreasing biodiversity  14], altering carbon flows or maintaining them [35 , 36], and increasing ecological vulnerability . Therefore, it is necessary to provide an understanding of these ecosystems in order to design and implement appropriate strategies based on sustainable management to ensure their preservation and/or preservation [38, 39]. Therefore, this study evaluates the relationship between urbanization and the quality and health of wetlands in order to answer the following question: How do different degrees of urbanization affect the changes involved in the creation of a coastal saltwater landscape?
Chile has a large coastal region, with approximately 83,850 km of coastline and approximately 40,000 wetlands throughout the country. However, it has a weak planning policy, with a lack of land use planning and coastal zoning tools to protect ecosystems . Although a bill has been passed to protect urban wetlands, the lack of such action in the past has led to a significant reduction in wetlands, due to urban growth and especially in the central region of the country (33–37.5° S), where 73% of the population is recorded . The case of the Concepción Metropolitan Area (CMA) is very relevant; since the 1970s, more than 23% of the total wetland area has been lost, with salt marshes and estuaries being the most affected . However, wetlands in the CMA continue to suffer from varying degrees of anthropogenic stress. One of the systems under the greatest pressure is the Rocuant-Andalién saltmarsh (36°43′ S–73° W); 575 ha were displaced by 2004 and 725 ha in 2014 , leading to the loss of 40% of the wetland, due to housing, roads and industrial projects. Since the 1980s it has been used for the fishing industry and wastewater treatment [15, 42, 43]. In contrast, the Tubul-Raqui system (37 ° 13′ S–73 ° W), located to the south of the CMA, is a wetland with a low urban humidity , where most of the anthropogenic pressure is the release of small particles. water stored in an estuarine system.
Knowledge of the local environment should be included in the evaluation of the effects of urbanization on coastal wetlands and especially the factors affecting the characteristics of the ecosystem. Therefore, the objective of this work is to compare the production of two wetlands with different levels of habitat on the coast of the CMA: the anthropized Rocuant-Andalién wetland and, as a reference, Tubul-Raqui wetland. , an ecosystem with low urban density. The investigation will allow these wetlands to be defined and the impact of access into them on water quality, sediment and aquatic biota to be assessed, providing information to make it possible to create protective or/preserved tools for these ecosystems in local environments.
The Rocuant-Andalién (36°43′ S–73°60′ W) and Tubul-Raqui coastal saltmarsh wetlands (37°13′ S–73°26′ W) were studied, located in the CMA of the Biobío Region . This area has a Mediterranean climate, with a lot of rain in the austral winter, which results in high rivers in
Measuring Conservation Progress In North America
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