International Journal Of Coal Science & Technology Impact Factor – Disappearance of coal seams recorded in associated Gangue rocks in the SW part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland.

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International Journal Of Coal Science & Technology Impact Factor

International Journal Of Coal Science & Technology Impact Factor

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By Xiaoxia Song Xiaoxia Song Scilit Google Scholar View Publication 1, 2, * , Hongtao Ma Hongtao Ma Scilit Google Scholar View Publication 1 , Benjamin M. Saalidong Benjamin M. Saalidong Scilit Google Scholar View Publication 1 and Kaijie Li Kaijie Li Scilit Google Scholar View Publications 1

Open Source Mapping Of China’s Energy Infrastructure

Submitted: August 22, 2021 / Revised: September 13, 2021 / Accepted: September 14, 2021 / Published: September 21, 2021

A series of coal samples were collected near a diabase dyke to investigate the petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of thermally altered coal in the Datong Coalfield, China. Proximate analysis, vitrinite reflectance measurements, and petrographic analysis were applied to identify and characterize the alteration halo; optical microscope observations, qualitative X-ray diffractometry, and SEM-EDS were applied to study the phase, occurrence, and composition of minerals; XRF, ICP-MS, and AFS were applied to determine major and trace element concentrations; and the modes of occurrence of the elements were studied by correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis as well as SEM-EDS. The results show that the 3.6 m dike caused a change halo of about 2 m in diameter. In addition, the thermally altered coals were characterized by high vitrinite reflectivity, low volatile matter, and the occurrence of thermally altered organic particles. Dolomite and ankerite in the thermally altered coal can be derived from hydrothermal fluids, while muscovite and tobelite can be transformed from a kaolinite precursor. The average concentration of Sr in the Tashan thermal coal changed to 1714 μg / g, which is more than 12 times that of the Chinese coal; the phosphate minerals and kaolinite that provide Sr for this important enrichment. The cluster analysis classified elements and geochemical associations into four groups: groups 1 and 2 were associated with aluminosilicates, clays, and carbonates and exposed enrichment in the coal/rock contact zone, indicating that the dike may be the source of the elements; group 3 includes P

, Sr, Ba, and Be, which vary in coal, suggesting that their concentration was influenced by several factors; group 4 did not manifest obvious variations in coal, which means that the coal itself was the source.

International Journal Of Coal Science & Technology Impact Factor

Igneous intrusions in coal-bearing sedimentary basins have been reported in many countries, such as the USA [1, 2, 3], South Africa [4, 5], Australia [6, 7, 8], Spain [9], India . [10, 11, 12, 13], Turkey [14, 15, 16], and China [17, 18, 19, 20, 21]. Igneous intrusions in coal-bearing layers greatly affect the safety of the mining process and have an impact on coal quality, petrography, mineralogy, and geochemistry.

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The heating and expansion of the igneous intrusions and the cooling and contraction of the surrounding rocks cause massive joints and fractures in coal [22], which induces enhanced permeability and reduced stability of coal seams, which can lead to gas explosions and roof collapse [23 ] . Igneous intrusions reduce the economic viability of coal mining due to the difficult mining conditions they create. In addition, thermally altered coal, which is not marketable, can be abandoned in the practical mining process because it generally has high ash production, low calorific value, and difficulty with combustion.

Coal is a type of sedimentary rock that is sensitive to changes in temperature and stress that can cause physical and chemical variations. Heating from igneous intrusion petrographically changes the coal. Thermally altered coal is macroscopically dull and dense [10, 14]; microtextures such as mesophase spheres, mosaics, flow structures, pyrolytic carbon, and graphitic sphaerolites occur due to contact metamorphism [ 12 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 ]. Thermally altered coal shows an increase in reflectance and thus coal rank [28, 29]; The coal can change to natural coke and in some cases even undergo natural graphitization in the immediate area of ​​the igneous body [30, 31, 32]. However, thermal coals altered by igneous intrusions may follow a different maturation pathway and show subtle changes compared to unaltered coals [ 33 , 34 , 35 ].

Paleoenvironment and geological evolution are important factors affecting coal mineralogy, and igneous intrusions can significantly alter the mineralogy of thermally altered coals in two ways. First, the original minerals may change [36]; for example, Chen et al. [37] suggested that the clinochlore and halloysite in the thermally altered coals can produce changes in aluminosilicates. Moreover, Li et al. [38] stated that chlorite, muscovite, and illite in anthracite had a precursor to kaolinite and were possibly formed by alteration of pre-existing kaolinite by hydrothermal solution. Second, some minerals may be deposited directly from hydrothermal fluids; for example, Dai et al. [27] reported hydrothermally derived alabandite (MnS) and chalcopyrite in thermally altered coal.

Coal may be one of the most complex geological materials and includes almost every element in the periodic table [39]. Although Finkelman et al. [2] stated that studies on the effect of igneous intrusion on the inorganic constituents of coal are rare, many studies have been conducted in recent years [9, 19, 40, 41, 42]. Elements can be enriched, depleted, or show no variation in coal thermally altered by contact metamorphism [43, 44]. Enriched elements can be introduced into coal by hydrothermal fluids or groundwater [37], whereas depleted elements can be vaporized or leached [2]. However, Dai et al. [45] stated that the mechanisms of element migration between intrusions and coal are still unclear.

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As suggested by Finkelman et al. [2], “magma intrusion in coal offers the opportunity to study the mobilization of potentially dangerous elements under high temperatures, reducing conditions that simulate gasification conditions in situ.” A series of coal samples near a diabase dike were systematically collected in this study, and an integrated approach including petrographic, mineralogical, and geochemical data was used to achieve: (i) identification and characterization of the alteration halo; (ii) identification of crystalline phases, mode of mineral occurrence, and mineralogical composition; (iii) assessment of concentration and distribution and assessment of affinity and mode of occurrence of elements, as well as potential sources and geological factors that may cause their enrichment or depletion.

Datong Coalfield is located in the north of Shanxi Province [46], China, bordering Inner Mongolia in the north. The northeast portion of the coal field is bounded by the Qingciyao fault, while the west, south, and southeast boundaries have coal seam outcrops. Cambrian-Ordovician strata underlie the Datong coalfield and are overlain by coal-bearing Carboniferous-Permian and Jurassic strata and Cretaceous, Neogene, and Quaternary strata (Figure 1). Structurally, the coal is a large asymmetric synclinal; its southeast flank is steeper than its northwest. Tashan Coal Mine is located 30 km southwest of Datong City in the middle of the eastern portion of the Datong syncline. The coal mine is 20 km long and 12.5 km wide, covering an area of ​​170.9 km.

Which extends from 39°53’23” N to 40°00’09” N and 112°49’23” E to 113°04’03” E. Structurally, the region shows a single oblique fault with a strike of 10- 50. NE with a dip to the NW; some small-scale anticlines and synclines develop locally.

International Journal Of Coal Science & Technology Impact Factor

The Datong coal beds include the Jurassic Datong, Lower Permian Shanxi, and Upper Carboniferous Taiyuan formations (Figure 2). The Jurassic coal seam has now been exhausted, and exploitation has turned to the underlying Carboniferous-Permian coal seam [21].

Systematic Use Of Coal As A Fuel Source Found At Bronze Age Dig Site

The Taiyuan Formation has a thickness ranging from 33.2 to 138.25 m, with an average of 96.27 m. It has 10 coal seams (no. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10), of which no. 2, 3, 5, and 8, with an average accumulation thickness of 22 m, is poor. No. 3 coal seams divided into 3

Coal seam west of the Tashan Coal Mine, whereas the no. 3 and 5 coal seams join

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