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Leader Of Italy In World War 2
John Foot Professor of Modern Italian History, Department of Italian, University College London, London, England. Author of Milan From Miracle: City, Culture, and Identity and more.
Summary Of World War Ii
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While working for various trade unions in Switzerland, Benito Mussolini developed a reputation as a charismatic and eloquent orator. After returning to Italy, he gathered a large following while working as editor of a socialist magazine
. His political beliefs shifted to the right in the middle of World War I, when he stopped criticizing the war effort and began to advocate. After World War I he began to organize
—military forces known for wearing black shirts. These groups began to carry out terrorist campaigns and threats against leftist institutions in Italy at his behest. In 1922 Mussolini and other fascist leaders organized a march to Rome with the aim of forcing the king to surrender the government to Mussolini. It worked, and Mussolini was elected prime minister that same year. By 1925 Mussolini had dismantled Italy’s democratic institutions and assumed his role as dictator, adopting the name Il Duce (“The Leader”).
Victor Emmanuel Iii
Benito Mussolini was the first European dictator of the 20th century. But Mussolini’s political inclinations did not always lean that way. His father was an ardent socialist who worked part-time as a journalist for a left-wing publication. When he first became involved in politics, Mussolini’s beliefs followed those of his father: he spent time organizing with trade unions and writing socialist literature in Switzerland and Italy. Mussolini’s politics turned to the right in the middle of World War I, when he became an advocate of the war effort. It was during this time, and after that, the nationalist and anti-Bolshevik ideas that would later characterize his politics began to emerge. These politics included themes of racial supremacy, xenophobia, and imperialism that defined his actions as a dictator.
, which was a pile of sticks topped with an ax head that officials of ancient Rome carried to mark their status.
Benito Mussolini was the less prominent half of the Rome-Berlin axis, organized by the 1939 Pact of Steel between Adolf Hitler and himself. World War II broke out between Germany and the rest of Europe later that year, but Italy—whose fortunes were already weakened by pre-existing economic issues and Mussolini’s Ethiopian victory in 1935—he was reluctant to intervene. Concerned that he would lose his claim to the conquest of Europe as Hitler advanced, Mussolini entered the war in 1940. Italy was unsuccessful from the start, with a humiliating defeat in North Africa , Greece, and the Soviet Union. When the Allies arrived in Sicily in 1943, Mussolini’s government arrested him.
Benito Mussolini was born into a poor family in Predappio, a town in northeastern Italy. His father was a blacksmith who wrote for some time as a socialist journalist, and his mother was a Catholic school teacher. As an adult, Benito Mussolini would have two wives and many concubines. He had one child with his first wife, Ida Dalser, but he would eventually abandon them and seek to hide them from the public eye. He would have five children—three boys and two girls—by another woman, Rachele Guidi. He was close to his longtime mistress, Clara Petacci, when he died, however. The two were killed in 1943 by the Italian police when they tried to escape to Switzerland, and their bodies were hanged upside down in Milan.
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Benito Mussolini (born July 29, 1883, Predappio, Italy—died April 28, 1945, near Dongo) Prime Minister of Italy (1922–43) and the first of the European fascist dictators of the 20th century age.
Mussolini was the first child of a local blacksmith. In later years he showed that he was proud of his humble origins and often referred to himself as “a man of the people.” In fact, Mussolini’s family was less humble than he claimed—his father, a part-time socialist journalist and blacksmith, was the son of an Army lieutenant. Society, and his mother was a teacher—but the Mussolinis. they were indeed poor. They lived in two crowded rooms on the second floor of a small, dilapidated palazzo; and, because Mussolini’s father spent much of his time discussing politics in vacation homes and most of his money to his mistress, the meals his three children ate were usually and few.
A restless child, Mussolini was disobedient, unruly, and violent. He was a bully at school and a versatile person at home. As the teachers of the village school could not control him, he was sent to ride with the strict Salesian order in Faenza, where he proved more troublesome than ever, stabbing a fellow pupil. also with a penknife and attacked one of the Salesians who had tried to do the same. to whip him. He was expelled and sent to the Giosuè Carducci School in Forlimpopoli, where he was expelled again after attacking another student with a penknife.
He was also intelligent, and passed his final exams without a problem. He got a teaching degree and worked for a while as a school teacher but he soon realized that he was completely unfit for such a job. At the age of 19, a short, blond young man with a strong jaw and large, dark, piercing eyes, he left Italy for Switzerland with a nickel medal of Karl Marx in his pockets when they were empty. For the next few months, according to his account, he lived day to day, jumping from job to job.
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However, at the same time, he was gaining the reputation of being a young man with amazing powers and amazing speaking talents. He read widely and devotedly, if not deeply, into philosophers and theorists Immanuel Kant, Benedict de Spinoza, Peter Kropotkin, Friedrich Nietzsche, G.W.F. Hegel, Karl Kautsky, and Georges Sorel, chooses what interests him and discards the rest, not establishing his political philosophy but appealing to his colleagues as a possible transformation of extraordinary personality and existence. amazing While gaining a reputation as a political journalist and public speaker, he produced manifestos for the labor movement, instigating strikes and advocating violence as a means of meeting demands. Again and again, he called for a day of revenge. Several times he was arrested and imprisoned. When he returned to Italy in 1904, even the Roman newspapers had begun to mention his name.
After some time after his return, little was heard of him. He again became a school teacher, this time in the Venetian Alps, north of Udine, where he lived, so he admitted, a life of “debauchery.” But after a while, tired of such a wasted life, he returned to the work of the trade union, journalism, and radical politics, which led to his arrest and imprisonment.
During freedom in 1909, he fell in love with 16-year-old Rachele Guidi, the younger of the two daughters of his father’s widow; she went to live with him in a damp, cramped apartment in Forlì and later married him. Soon after the wedding, Mussolini was imprisoned for the fifth time; but by that time Comrade Mussolini had already been recognized as one of the most gifted and dangerous young Italian socialists. After writing in many different socialist papers, he founded his own newspaper,
(“Class Description”). The paper was so successful that in 1912 he was appointed editor of the official Socialist newspaper,
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(“Go Forward!”), whose flow he quickly doubled; and as its anti-military, anti-state, and anti-imperialist organizer, he strongly opposed Italy’s involvement in World War I.
However, he soon changed his mind about the intervention. Influenced by Karl Marx’s theory that social revolution often follows war and convinced that “the defeat of France would be the death sentence for freedom in Europe,” he began to write articles and speeches violence that supports the war as he had previously condemned. it. He resigned
And was expelled from the Socialist Party. Supported by the French government and Italian industrialists, both of whom favored war against Austria, he assumed the editorship of
(“People of Italy”), where he clearly stated his new philosophy: “From today on we are all Italians and nothing but Italians.” Now that iron meets iron, one cry comes from our hearts—Home Sports & Quiz History & Society Science & Tech Biographies Animals & Nature Geography & Travel Arts & Culture Money Videos
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Although Mussolini understood that peace was important to Italy’s well-being, that a prolonged war would be dangerous, and that he should not “go blindly with the Germans,” he was concerned that Germans “can do good business cheaply”
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