Long Term Effects Of Alcohol On The Stomach – Alcohol is the common term for ethanol or ethyl alcohol, a chemical found in alcoholic beverages such as beer, cider, malt liquor, wines, and distilled spirits (liqueurs). Alcohol is produced by the fermentation of sugars and starches by yeast. Alcohol is also found in some medicines, mouthwashes, and household products (including vanilla extract and other flavorings). This fact sheet focuses on the risks associated with consuming alcoholic beverages.
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, a standard alcoholic drink in the United States contains 14.0 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. Generally, this amount of pure alcohol is found in:
Long Term Effects Of Alcohol On The Stomach
These quantities are used by public health experts in developing health guidelines on alcohol consumption and to provide people with a way to compare the amounts of alcohol they consume. However, they may not reflect typical portion sizes that people may encounter in daily life.
Long Term Effects Of Alcohol On The Esophagus
According to the federal government’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025, people who don’t drink alcohol should not start drinking for any reason. The Dietary Guidelines also recommend that people who drink alcohol do so in moderation, limiting consumption to 2 drinks or less per day for men and 1 drink or less per day for women. Excessive alcohol consumption is defined as consuming 4 or more drinks in a day or 8 or more drinks per week for women and 5 or more drinks in a day or 15 or more drinks per week for men.
There is strong scientific consensus that alcohol consumption can cause several types of (1, 2). In its Report on Carcinogens, the National Toxicology Program of the US Department of Health and Human Services lists the consumption of alcoholic beverages as a known human carcinogen.
Evidence indicates that the more alcohol a person drinks – particularly the more alcohol they drink regularly over time – the higher the risk of developing an alcohol-associated syndrome. Even those who drink no more than one drink per day and binge drinkers (those who consume 4 or more drinks for women and 5 or more drinks for men in a single sitting) have a slightly increased risk of some s (3-7 ). Based on 2009 data, an estimated 3.5% of deaths in the United States (approximately 19,500 deaths) were alcohol-related (8).
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Numerous studies have examined whether there is an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of other alcohol use. For the ovaries, prostate, stomach, uterus, and bladder, either no association with alcohol use has been found or evidence of an association is inconsistent. However, evidence is accumulating that alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of melanoma and prostate and pancreatic problems (4, 15).
In numerous studies, alcohol consumption has also been associated with a decreased risk of renal (16-18) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (19, 20). However, any potential benefits of drinking alcohol to reduce risks for some are likely outweighed by the harms of drinking alcohol. In fact, a recent study that included data from more than 1,000 alcohol studies and data sources, as well as death and disability registries from 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016, concluded that the optimal number of drinks to consume per day for minimizing the overall health risk is zero (21). That study did not include data on renal or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Alcohol consumption may also be associated with an increased risk of primary secondary diseases. For example, a meta-analysis of data from 19 studies showed that among patients with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) – which includes the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx and esophagus – for every 10 grams of alcohol consumed per day before the first diagnosis of UADT there was a 1.09-fold greater risk of a second primary UADT (22). It is less clear whether alcohol consumption increases the risk of second primary lesions at other sites, such as the breast (23–25).
Alcoholic beverages may also contain a variety of carcinogenic contaminants introduced during fermentation and production, such as nitrosamines, asbestos fibers, phenols, and hydrocarbons.
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The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption may reduce the risks of some disorders are not understood and may be indirect.
Epidemiological research shows that people who use both alcohol and tobacco are at much greater risk of developing lesions of the oral cavity, pharynx (throat), larynx, and esophagus than people who use alcohol or tobacco alone. In fact, for oral and pharyngeal drugs, the risks associated with the use of both alcohol and tobacco are multiplicative; that is, they are greater than would be expected when the individual risks associated with alcohol and tobacco were added together ( 10 , 26 ).
A person’s risk of alcohol-related disease is influenced by their genes, particularly the genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolizing (breaking down) alcohol (27).
For example, one way the body metabolizes alcohol is through the activity of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, or ADH, which converts ethanol to the cancer-causing metabolite acetaldehyde, primarily in the liver. Recent evidence suggests that acetaldehyde production also occurs in the oral cavity and may be influenced by factors such as the oral microbiome (28, 29).
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Many individuals of East Asian descent carry a version of the ADH gene that codes for a “superactive” form of the enzyme. This superactive ADH enzyme accelerates the conversion of alcohol (ethanol) to toxic acetaldehyde. Among people of Japanese ancestry, those with this form of ADH have a higher risk of pancreatic problems than those with the more common form of ADH (30).
Another enzyme, called aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), metabolizes toxic acetaldehyde into nontoxic substances. Some people, particularly those of East Asian origin, carry a variant of the ALDH2 gene that codes for a defective form of the enzyme. In people who produce the faulty enzyme, acetaldehyde builds up when they drink alcohol. The buildup of acetaldehyde has such unpleasant effects (including facial flushing and heart palpitations) that most people who have inherited the ALDH2 variant are unable to consume large amounts of alcohol and therefore have a low risk of developing s.
However, some individuals with the defective form of ALDH2 can become tolerant to the unpleasant effects of acetaldehyde and consume large amounts of alcohol. Epidemiological studies have shown that such individuals have a higher risk of esophageal disorders, as well as alcohol-related head and neck problems, compared to individuals with the fully active enzyme who drink comparable amounts of alcohol (31). These increased risks are observed only among people who carry the ALDH2 variant and drink alcohol; they are not observed in people who carry the variant but do not drink alcohol.
Resveratrol, a secondary plant compound, found in grapes used to make red wine and some other plants, has been studied for many possible health effects, including prevention. However, researchers found no association between moderate red wine consumption and the risk of developing prostate (32) or colorectal (33) disease.
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Most studies that have looked at whether risk decreases after a person stops drinking alcohol have focused on the head, neck, and esophagus areas. Overall, these studies have found that stopping alcohol use is not associated with an immediate reduction in risk. The risks eventually decline, although it may take years for the risks to return to those of someone who never drinks.
For example, former drinkers still had higher oral cavity and pharynx risks than non-drinkers even 16 years after they stopped drinking alcohol, although it was lower than before they stopped drinking (34). One study estimated that it will take more than 35 years for the higher risks of laryngeal and pharyngeal disorders associated with alcohol consumption to decline to the level of non-drinkers (35).
As with most questions related to a specific individual’s treatment, it is best for patients to check with their healthcare team whether it is safe to drink alcohol during or immediately after chemotherapy treatment. The doctors and nurses administering the treatment will be able to provide specific advice on the safety of consuming alcohol during specific treatments. When you drink alcohol, it is absorbed into your bloodstream and affects every part of your body. After the first sip, alcohol reaches the brain releasing endorphins that make you feel good and your heart rate can increase. For heavy drinkers, long-term alcohol has a serious impact on overall well-being, including personality and mental health. More importantly, alcohol puts your physical health at serious risk. Below are the long-term side effects that alcohol has on the body after long periods of time:
Drinking a lot can lead to brain damage and memory loss. A recent study looked at over 36,000 middle-aged adults and the relationship between their alcohol consumption and brain volume. The researchers found that one or two drinks a day were linked to changes in the brain equivalent to aging by two years. In other words, a 50-year-old who drinks a pint of beer or a glass of wine a day ages effectively
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