Marseille’s Energy Performance Certificates: What They Mean For Property Owners – With growing concerns about climate change and rising energy prices, ports and terminals around the world are recognizing the urgent need to prioritize energy efficiency and environmental protection. Stricter regulations aimed at limiting emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases have forced the port industry to review its operational strategies and energy patterns.

In this white paper, we delve into the critical role of innovative technologies in facilitating the transition from a carbon-intensive port industry heavily dependent on fossil fuels to a low-carbon model that uses renewable energy and alternative fuels. Through a systematic literature review, we explore various operational strategies, technology applications and energy management systems that have the potential to significantly improve energy efficiency and environmental performance in ports and terminals.

Marseille’s Energy Performance Certificates: What They Mean For Property Owners

Marseille's Energy Performance Certificates: What They Mean For Property Owners

The role of energy efficiency European ports significantly emphasize their environmental profile and achieve success in port environmental management. With an emphasis on well-connected infrastructure, efficient services and transparent financing, reducing energy consumption has become a top priority. In fact, it ranks third among the top 10 environmental challenges for the European port sector. To address this issue, 57% of European ports have already implemented energy efficiency programs and 20% have taken steps to directly generate renewable energy. A recent paper presents a structured approach to developing a port energy management plan (EMP) that highlights key considerations, challenges and perspectives. After 2020, energy consumption has gained particular attention as an important environmental priority in the European port sector. In recent years, it has risen to second place in importance after air quality. To address this issue, European port authorities are actively working to develop policies, action plans and governance structures. These efforts are critical to identifying and implementing effective solutions tailored to local conditions and priorities. Thus, ports seek to achieve significant environmental benefits and cost savings. The following subsections describe generally accepted policies, standards and strategies for managing energy consumption in port areas. ISO 50001 ISO 50001 is an energy management standard introduced by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 2011 to support energy managers in achieving energy reduction targets. It follows the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) improvement cycle. The standard provides for conducting an energy survey, establishing basic energy data, determining an energy strategy, establishing energy saving goals and objectives, implementing selected measures, monitoring and reviewing processes, as well as making strategic decisions for continuous improvement. ISO 50001 emphasizes a systematic, data-driven approach to improving energy efficiency. Although ISO 50001 offers significant benefits in improving energy efficiency, its implementation presents challenges. The standard requires considerable effort and resources, making certification a major commitment for port authorities. As a result, the implementation of ISO 50001 in the European Union (EU) remains low. The ports of Felixstowe and Antwerp were the first to receive the certificate, with other ports such as Valencia and Hamburg following suit. However, the number of certified ports still needs to grow, especially among smaller ports. EN 16001 The European Standard for Energy Management Systems (EnMS), EN 16001, is a close alternative to ISO 50001, with EN 16001 being introduced in 2009 and acting as a predecessor to ISO 50001. Although both standards have similarities, there are notable differences between them. For example, they follow the same structure of the PDCA cycle, which allows for easy integration with environmental management systems. However, ISO 50001 introduced three new concepts not found in EN 16001. The first concept focuses on the role of senior management in defining energy policies and objectives, allocating resources and establishing operational roles. ISO 50001 emphasizes the need for an energy management team led by a management representative to support senior management. The second concept, in the “PLANNING” phase, provides a more detailed energy analysis process to establish a reliable baseline and monitor energy performance with relevant indicators. A third difference is in the “DO” phase, where ISO 50001 emphasizes the design of processes, systems and equipment that affect energy aspects, including delineating energy policies in contracts and communications with energy suppliers. However, certain aspects of EN 16001 have not been adopted in ISO 50001. These include the priority scale for energy aspects, the identification of workforce activities that affect energy consumption, and cost projections for modernization and corresponding reductions in energy consumption. These aspects contributed to investment decisions based on energy consumption forecasts. EN 16001 had limited application in the European port sector, probably due to less emphasis on energy efficiency by port authorities at the time (2009). Port Energy Management Plan The Port Energy Management Plan (PeMP) methodology provides a step-by-step approach for port authorities interested in developing their energy management plans. This methodology takes into account global initiatives such as the Port of Los Angeles and can serve as a preliminary step towards accreditation under energy management standards. The methodology begins with a general mapping of energy consumption and an estimation method to establish a baseline. The mapping process follows a three-tiered top-down approach, assessing overall energy consumption, process units and physical processes in the port. By assessing energy consumption at each level of activity, gaps and inefficiencies can be identified, leading to targeted recommendations for improvement. These recommendations are brought to the attention of stakeholders in the port community to reach a consensus on the necessary actions. Reengineering processes are then defined and implemented with key performance indicators for PeMP development. Finally, the plan defines actions, time frames, cost estimates and responsibilities for improving energy efficiency. The methodology has been successfully applied and tested in six Mediterranean ports, including Valencia, Marseille, Livorno, Venice, Koper and Rijeka. In each port, the main energy consumers are identified and measures are proposed to achieve significant energy and cost savings. Through pilot testing and prioritization, successful results were achieved leading to full-scale implementation decisions. For example, the port of Livorno created and put into operation a cold ironing system based on the results of pilot tests. Although PeMP is not a certification procedure in itself, it serves as a valuable intermediate step for port authorities, gradually preparing them for future certification to more demanding standards. This approach helps port authorities on their way to achieving higher levels of energy efficiency and sustainability. Port Environmental Management Plans Energy management plays an important role in Port Environmental Management Plans (PEMPs) and environmental policies implemented by port authorities to comprehensively address environmental issues. However, these plans are often broader in scope and allow for a significant degree of flexibility, resulting in a limited commitment by port authorities to effective energy management. Currently, seven port authorities in the Mediterranean region, including Venice, Trieste, Koper, Bar, Durrës, Thessaloniki and Piraeus, are actively developing PEMPs to cover different areas of intervention. These plans, completed in 2020, set priorities for improving energy management and aim to reduce the level of energy consumption in ports. Each port has specific initiatives aimed at improving energy efficiency. For example, the Port of Venice plans to carry out an energy efficiency diagnostic process to accurately assess current energy consumption levels and develop appropriate improvement strategies. In addition, the Port of Trieste is exploring the implementation of a Shore Power Supply System (OPS) at its Ro-Ro terminals, which is estimated to reduce CO2 emissions by more than 40%. To ensure effective planning, the recommendations of the Italian Ministry of the Environment and the Action Plan for Sustainable Energy Development of the Municipality of Trieste are considered. Port Bar focuses on developing an inventory of existing equipment to collect detailed energy consumption data. In addition, a priority list of possible energy sustainability measures is drawn up for the entire port, as well as for individual territories and operations. Durres is evaluating the feasibility of investing in clean and renewable energy, including the installation of a photovoltaic system, the conversion of vehicles and equipment from diesel to electric, and the implementation of an OPS system. The Port of Thessaloniki aims to develop a real-time information system to monitor the consumption of electricity, natural gas, water and fuel during all port operations. At the same time, they are working on the development of PEMP according to a certain methodology. Similarly, the Port of Piraeus is exploring an energy consumption monitoring system that will support its future ISO 50001 certification. This infrastructure, along with other measures such as improving the energy efficiency of buildings, implementing lighting control systems and electrifying selected terminal equipment, will contribute to the port’s environmental goals. In line with their environmental policies, some European port authorities have introduced modal split clauses in concession contracts for container terminals. These provisions oblige terminal operators to improve environmental and energy performance, aligning with the vision and goals of the port authority. For example, the Port of Rotterdam required bidders for the concession contract for the Maasvlakte 2 container terminal to describe their proposed modal split and the strategies they would use to achieve the desired split. In addition, various other environmental instruments may be considered in terminal concession settings. Integrating energy management into port planning and policy presents both challenges and benefits. The broader focus and flexibility of planning tools can limit commitments to efficient energy management. However, the development of PEMPs and the implementation of energy efficiency measures in Mediterranean ports demonstrate a proactive approach to reducing

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