“net Metering And Feed-in Tariffs: Incentivizing Renewable Electricity” – Analysis and Verification of Iron Loss of Traction Motor for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Current Source Analysis Considering Inverter Switching Frequency Carrier

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“net Metering And Feed-in Tariffs: Incentivizing Renewable Electricity”

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Guidebook On Net Metering In The Philippines

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By Abdul Rauf Abdul Rauf Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Ali T. Al-Awami Ali T. Al-Awami Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 2 , Mahmoud Kassas Mahmoud Kassas Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 3 and and Muhammad Khalid Muhammad Khalid Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, 3, 4

How Solar Net Metering Works In Australia: Everything You Need To Know

Interdisciplinary Research Center of Smart Mobility and Logistics, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, P.O. Box 5067, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Systems, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Received: 14 September 2021 / Revised: 20 October 2021 / Accepted: 26 October 2021 / Published: 7 November 2021

In this paper, the economic feasibility of installing a small solar photovoltaic (PV) system is studied in residential and commercial buildings from the perspective of the end user. Based on the given conditions, the best rating method for solar PV installation has been proposed focusing mainly on the low payback period provided (rooftop) of the solar PV installation by the customer. The plan is presented with the help of a research study using monthly load profile data of residential and commercial loads/customers and the current market price of solar PVs and inverters. In addition, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to assess the effectiveness of the metering scheme for a reasonably high participation of the end users. Since Saudi Arabia’s Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA) has recently approved and published a metering scheme for small solar PV systems that allow end users to generate and export surplus energy to the utility grid, the proposed scheme is already important and its practical importance is justified by the numbers and and graphs obtained by computer simulation.

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Renewable energy sources (RES) are the key to sustainable energy development as these are inexhaustible and non-polluting [1]. The technologies used in RES are also improved day by day, and improved units for producing RES are now commercially available in the market [2]. The best sources include solar photovoltaic (PV), wind power, solar thermal systems, and biomass. Many studies have been conducted to determine the size and performance of such plants [3, 4, 5]. Solar PV is one of the most durable, portable, and environmentally friendly energy sources developed by recent research. The use of solar PV prevents the depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental pollution through carbon emissions, oil spills, and toxic byproducts. A 1 kW PV system producing 150 kWh each month prevents 75 kg of fossil fuel from being mined. Protects 150 kg of CO

From entering the atmosphere and saves 473 Liters of water from consumption [6]. This research study aims to measure solar PV for local load needs at the customer level to minimize costs. A case study and actual data will be considered to determine the size of the solar PV under the given conditions of residential and commercial loads while considering the power from the national grid. A combination of conventional and renewable energy sources is being implemented in many small grids to serve the load, especially with the help of national electricity. Net metering at the end of the customer will be used to reduce energy costs [7, 8].

Energy security is currently the subject of much debate in policy circles around the world. Due to the availability of oil in the Kingdom and its status as a leading producer and exporter of oil, Saudi Arabia has not been widely investigated in terms of energy security. The Kingdom is not only the world’s leading producer but also ranks among the highest per capita oil consumers in the world. Due to the growing consumption of domestic energy and limited oil resources due to the peak of the world’s oil producer, Saudi Arabia has to deal with the energy crisis issues that come under the Kingdom’s energy security. Renewable energy sources play a major role in issues related to energy security in Saudi Arabia [9]. Fossil fuel energy systems have created serious environmental problems, namely air pollution, acid rain, climate change, and global warming, which are dangerous to human life. Solar PV energy is clean, quiet, abundant, sustainable, and renewable and more environmentally safe than any other electricity generation systems. Renewable energy systems can solve many environmental problems caused by traditional fossil fuels [10, 11].

Residential and commercial solar PV systems will share the load of power generation through common methods and easy supply to distribution companies. At this stage, the objective of the net metering scheme is to overcome the future energy needs and to provide a message to the public about energy conservation in the future. Future energy needs in the region require large DGs, which will increase environmental problems as discussed above. According to the rules of net metering scheme/gross metering scheme provided by many countries, the user will get incentives for installing solar PV system. Some countries are listed in Table 1.

Is Tamil Nadu On The Right Track To Achieve It’s Rooftop Solar Target? Net Metering Vs Feed In Tariff, An Analysis

In Figure 1, all the red areas have a higher ambient temperature than the orange light. Although the red areas have a higher solar irradiance than compared to the bright orange areas, due to the high ambient temperature, the energy loss can vary from 10 to 30%, but the solar PV degradation rate is considered flat in all cities of Saudi Arabia .

The electricity meter scheme relies on a double meter to measure energy import (or export) from (to) the grid and calculate the net charge (compensation) at the end of the user, as shown in Figure 2. It is widely used in the United States and some European countries. In metering, the investor generates income in solar systems by maintaining the electricity building only when there is a surplus of energy [13, 14, 15, 16]. RESs have become an emerging topic in the power generation industry now that technology has improved significantly. Moreover, improved renewable generation units are commercially available in the market, namely, solar PV, wind turbine, solar thermal generators, and biomass. However, the ideal energy production in remote areas would be solar PV due to the ease of installation [17, 18].

Residential electricity generation using customer-connected solar grid-connected PV systems has turned out to be an attractive proposition for many households. Behavior towards solar PV is caused by technological developments that have reduced the cost of producing solar PV energy [19, 20, 21]. There are various programs initiated by countries listed in Table 1 that encourage households to install residential solar energy systems. Under some of these systems, the electricity produced by residential systems (through PV power) can be sold at a favorable price to households that generate energy or are placed in conventional grids by the meter [22, 23].

For example, the Egyptian Utility & Consumer Regulatory Agency (EgyptTERA) published a residential metering scheme in November 2013 and was updated in May 2020 with the input of the North Cairo Electricity Distribution Company. In this scheme, the service provider will install the net meter, and the concerned customer will pay the fees and the remaining load. Every surplus unit (if any) is purchased by the service provider in the highest tariff category reached in the month and transferred to the next bill. At the end of the year, the provider pays for any remaining balance, if any [29]. A detailed information and diagram summarizing the regulatory and operational measures to implement Egypt’s metering system for small and medium-sized solar PV projects up to an installed capacity of 20 MW has been published in collaboration.

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