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“policy And Regulatory Implications Of Grid Integration Between Gas And Electricity”
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This paper is an extended version of our paper published in the International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Green Technology 2019, SEGT 2019, January 9, 2020, Volume 463, 2020.
Health And Clinical Impacts Of Air Pollution And Linkages With Climate Change
Received: 1 May 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 30 June 2020 / Published: 8 July 2020
Malaysia is in the process of further liberalizing its electricity supply industry (ESI), with the second series of reforms announced in September 2018. If all goes as planned, Malaysia would be the third country in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) to have a fully liberalized ESI the Philippines and Singapore. A number of initiatives are in the pipeline to be implemented and many more will be planned. At this juncture, it is important for Malaysia to look for best practices and lessons that can be learned from the experience of other countries that have successfully liberalized their ESIs. Being in the same region, it is believed that there is a lot that Malaysia can learn from the Philippines and Singapore. This paper thus presents and considers the chronological development of countries’ progressive journeys in liberalizing their ESIs. The aim is to identify the good practices, the challenges as well as the lessons of these transformations. Analysis is done and discussed from the following four perspectives; legislative framework, implementation phases, market components and impact on renewable energy penetration. The results of this study would provide useful insights for Malaysia to determine the course of actions to reform its ESI. Beyond Malaysia, the results can also serve as a reference for the other ASEAN countries to liberalize their ESIs.
Like most other countries, the electricity supply industry (ESI) in Malaysia started quite spontaneously, driven by the need of individual companies to electrify their businesses. Natural monopoly began in 1982 after the private and state electricity supply companies consolidated under the National Electricity Board (NEB). Subsequently, NEB became the only state-owned company that “monopolized” the supply of electricity to the entire Peninsular Malaysia, with the transmission lines stretching over 6300 km and close to two million customers at the time . In a monopolized or vertically integrated ESI, the operations of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity are owned and managed by a giant utility company as an entity or together with a number of other companies affiliated with it. This makes the competition almost non-existent. On the contrary, a liberalized or “open” ESI offers opportunities for other players in the industry to participate in the business. It therefore promotes competition, which often translates into efficiency, which is achieved through improved operations, management, customer services, etc. A liberalized ESI also facilitates the creation of regional electricity markets where electricity is traded between a number of nearby countries. Such a regional electricity market does not yet exist in the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) region, although the intention is there and is not new. The ASEAN Power Grid (APG) initiative was mandated in December 1997 with the goal of improving regional energy sustainability, security and reliability . According to the plan, the construction of the APG would start with a regional power link on cross-border bilateral terms, which would then expand on a sub-regional basis towards a totally integrated Southeast Asian power grid system. More than twenty years after the mandate, the intended APG is still a work-in-progress . While the physical connection of the networks is mostly complete, the electricity trade between the countries is not . The latter is currently done through bilateral power purchase agreements between the bordering countries. In comparison, the Nord Pool, which started the similar initiative around the same time, has successfully flourished and is even considered the most robust, efficient and harmonized regional electricity market [4, 5]. The success is largely attributed to and made possible by the region’s move to liberalize its ESIs. With ESI liberalization, efficiency is achieved through means such as increased competition in the market leading to improved operation , which can result in the elimination of unnecessary overhead provision (reserve margin) in monopolized markets . This allows capital resources to be used more effectively. Liberalized ESIs also promote the creation of pooled energy sources, which allow more efficient use of electricity through an increased response of consumers to prices . Larger connections also allowed for increased energy security . Regarding the government, liberalization significantly improved the governance of monopoly utilities, the prospects for competition and innovation, and the quality of policy instruments for environmental emission control .
So far, there are only two ASEAN countries that have fully liberalized their ESIs and have their own electricity markets; the Philippines and Singapore. With differences in terms of geographical condition, economic development status, total population etc. While it has been a “bumpy ride” for the Philippines, Singapore is experiencing a smoother transition. Malaysia is expected to be the next ASEAN country to go for full ESI liberalization. In September 2018 , the Malaysia Electricity Supply Industry (MESI) started the second series of its reform, MESI 2.0, where the opening of the electricity market continues to be presented as one of the main agenda. To address the stated MESI 2.0 goals, recommendations were made for Malaysia to consider unbundling its ESI, using the performance of countries in the North as a comparison . However, emulating the Nordic countries may not be the best option due to the large differences between the two regions in many aspects. The two countries in the Southeast Asia region that have already achieved full ESI liberalization would be more relevant for Malaysia to look at. This article therefore presents the chronological review of the ESIs transformation of the Philippines and Singapore towards liberalization with the aim of identifying the good practices, the challenges as well as the lessons learned from their experience. In particular, the review focuses on the following perspectives.
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The first three are essential to consider right from the start of a reform move, while RE penetration is included in the framework because Malaysia has clearly set its RE goals. Thus, it is relevant to identify the extent to which ESI liberalization is able to achieve the objectives. The required information is obtained from the published research work, technical reports, newspaper clippings and online communication with the relevant authorities. The analysis results conclude on the significant role played by the established legal framework, which is then followed by the formation of the institutional bodies and agencies with sufficient authorities to install the ESI reform. It is also noted that gradual but clearly defined phases of reform with explicit activities and objectives are important to ensure their smooth implementation. Despite the differences in market operations, common components that make up an electricity market can be identified. However, no significant impact on the amount of WE penetration into the network can be seen as a result of liberalization. Beyond Malaysia, the recommendations can potentially be considered by the other ASEAN countries as well. This is especially necessary when a review of the reform experiences of the countries found a significant difference between the expected and actual results .
The remainder of this article is organized into the following sections. Section 2 and Section 3 deal with the ESI reform journeys of the Philippines and Singapore respectively. Analysis, lessons learned and policy implications are presented in Section 4. Section
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