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“renewable Gas Technologies: A Path To Decarbonization In Europe”

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By Szabolcs Szima Szabolcs Szima Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar by Calin-Cristian Cormos Calin-Cristian Cormos Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar *

Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 20 February 2021 / Accepted: 22 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021

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And renewable hydrogen. Considering the many sources of renewable hydrogen, a technological and economic analysis has been carried out to find a promising way to implement it. In that paper, five possible renewable sources of hydrogen (photo fermentation, dark fermentation, biomass gasification, bio photolysis, and PV electrolysis) were compared with two methods (methane reforming and water electrolysis) from an economic point of view using key performance parameters. The hydrogen production capacity was also evaluated for evaluation. From a technical point of view, the SNG process is the best process from both efficiency (about 57%) and CO

Conversion rate (99%). From the considered options, photo-fermentation was found to be the most efficient with a cost equivalent to synthetic natural gas of 18.62 €/GJ. Considering the production potential, this method loses its advantage and the biomass gas is better with a lower price at 20.96 €/GJ. Both results show the option in the absence of CO

The credits improve the most important benchmarks, however, the price of SNG is still higher than the price of natural gas.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) special report on global warming of 1.5 °C [1] recommends reducing CO emissions.

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Greenhouse gas emissions in order to reduce global warming and reduce the effects of global warming caused by increased atmospheric CO

Concentration. The world’s population and economic growth are accompanied by increased intensity, which also means that anthropogenic fossil fuels are becoming more abundant.

Air pollution. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions [2], however, in order to reach the goals set in the form of 1.5 °C, zero emissions must be reached by 2050 [1]. The International Energy Agency (IEA) has emphasized the importance of carbon capture, use, and storage (CCUS) in reducing anthropogenic CO

Websites are offered in a variety of formats. In this case, two ways are possible: install CO

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In value-added products (eg, chemicals, energy carriers). Natural gas production (SNG) is a visible form of CO

The use of hydrogen is very important. The hydrogen required for SNG production is addressed in the next section of the paper.

Methane reforming (SMR) is currently the most important technology for hydrogen production [4] using fossil fuels (natural gas or light hydrocarbons). Given the abundance of plant markets and the dominance of this technology in hydrogen production, this can be expected to continue in the short to medium term. According to CO

Capture and use can be an effective way to move to a low hydrogen-based society [5]. Few options for hydrogen production are available in the literature, however, since the production of renewable hydrogen requires a lot of energy, the production costs are also high. The use of renewable energy to produce hydrogen is one of the most important, and depending on the carbon intensity of the energy produced, one can take one CO

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On the other hand, many free hydrogen sources are available that can produce hydrogen with near-zero emissions. The hydrogen option may be less energy efficient, however, the technology needs to be improved. In the next section, in addition to the five ways of increasing renewable hydrogen production, two ways of using active hydrogen (methane reforming and water electrolysis) are briefly presented.

Methane reforming is one of the hydrogen production technologies considered in this paper. This involves the reaction of a hydrocarbon fuel, generally natural gas (NG) with steam in front of a Ni-catalyst, to produce hydrogen according to Equation (1) (with water gas exchange – see Equation (4)) :

= + 206 kJ/mol) and is usually carried out in an external heat exchanger at high temperatures (500-900 °C) and at a pressure of 20-35 bar. Another technology is autothermal or partial oxidation. The ratio of steam to carbon is an important factor for the process, usually this value is 2.5:3. Low pressure, high temperature, and high ratio of carbon help to make hydrogen. A high vapor to carbon ratio also reduces carbon deposition of the catalyst; Deposit reaction is a major problem in the regeneration process. Ni-catalysts are used in regeneration processes [4] due to their high activity and low cost, however, this needs special attention due to its sensitivity to sulfur (toxicity). SMR is the most widely used reforming process for hydrogen production, and catalytic and partial oxidation reforming are two important components of the reforming process, the difference being that the first is an autothermal process while the second is an exothermic process, respectively [6 ].

. With technology, through special separation methods (using gas-liquid and solid systems), pure hydrogen can be obtained from any fuel (whether fossil or renewable). For this paper, biomass gasification was considered. In this process, oxygen and carbon dioxide are absorbed by biomass (eg, wood, agricultural waste, etc.) through a series of reactions that produce hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane in addition to other minor components as shown in equation (2) and (3).

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In equation (2), CkHlOm represents the general formula of biomass that can be used for hydrogen production. This can come from wood, wood, sugarcane, or any other agricultural waste. Tar is an unwanted byproduct of reactor gases that causes slowness and poor performance. To combat its formation, a good enzyme that stops the formation of the side is required. In the gas phase, hydrogen is obtained by the general equations (2) and (3) as well as by the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction (shown in equation (4)). WGS behavior is used to convert CO produced into CO

While additional hydrogen can be obtained as given in Eq. To convert as much CO as possible, a section is added to the system.

The most popular gas lines are provided by General Licensing (Massachusetts, USA), Siemens (Berlin, Germany) and Shell (London, England). All of these are gas-fired, which means that solid fuel is fed into the reactor using an inert carrier gas (N

) or water. The temperature inside the gas can reach 1350-1500 °C while the pressure can reach 100 bar [7]. Gas parameters are not only affected by the fuel and ash produced, but also by the downdraft and downdraft.

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Electrolysis and Photovoltaic (PV) electrolysis uses water and energy to produce hydrogen. It is considered to be the basic technology of the hydrogen production industry. An electric current is passed through a liquid between two electrodes in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen gas. The two gases are easily separated because they are formed at two electrodes: hydrogen at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. This is the main advantage of the process: it provides a low carbon (based on the use of carbon-free electricity) technology for the production of hydrogen and the only product is oxygen. By using energy from new sources (PV energy in the case of PV electrolysis), this can reduce CO

The impact of the process is zero. The main disadvantage of water electrolysis is its low power, which explains the low share of electrolysis in global hydrogen production of about 4% [5]. This low capacity also means high economic costs and electricity consumption [8]. On the other hand, this share of hydrogen produced by electrolysis is expected to increase in the future due to the need for clean hydrogen.

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