“shale Gas Exploration And Development In Europe” – Many scholars believe that fossil fuel energy will decline markedly by 2050. Such conclusions have been challenged by others who argue that the earth has enough resources to satisfy the species’ thirst for growth. people for centuries to come.

Shale gas and oil are unique natural resources. They are found at depths of 2,500-5,000 meters below the earth’s surface.

“shale Gas Exploration And Development In Europe”

The most common way to extract shale gas is ‘hydraulic fracturing’ (fracking), which is nothing but sending large amounts of water mixed with some chemicals to break up rock and release energy minerals. trapped.

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In August 2018, the central government approved a sweeping policy allowing private and government actors to explore and exploit unconventional hydrocarbons (including shale gas) in areas contracts are allocated primarily for the extraction of conventional hydrocarbons.

Unlike conventional hydrocarbons which can easily escape from permeable rocks, shale gas is trapped under low permeable rocks.

Therefore, a mixture of ‘pressurized water, chemicals, and sand’ (shale fluid) is needed to break down low-permeability rocks to unlock shale gas reserves.

This process requires between 5 and 9 million liters of water per extraction operation, posing a daunting challenge to India’s freshwater resources.

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Hydraulic well fracturing (“fracking”) is the process of injecting liquid into a well to create enough pressure to crack or fracture the rock layer.

The cracks are created by pumping large amounts of liquid at high pressure down the well and into the target rock formation.

The fluid often contains a “waterproofing agent,” like sand, that helps keep the cracks open to allow oil and gas to be produced in the well.

The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) has issued guidance on environmental precautions during shale gas extraction. It states that “the overall volume of the fault fluid is 5 to 10 times greater than that of conventional methods”.

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The DGH notice states that these issues will be dealt with during the issuance of environmental permits according to the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process.

As a result, cracking has the potential to deplete the water supply and cause pollution due to backflow discharge.

The government introduced a policy on oil and shale gas in 2013. The government allowed National Oil and Gas Companies to participate in oil exploration.

In the first phase, shale gas blocks have been identified in Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Gujarat, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.

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Environmental groups say they have a bad impact on the environment. Even well-developed Western countries like Germany and France and subnational governments like Scotland have banned fracking.

Indian Households and Irrigation Thrive on Groundwater Implementing fracking procedures without consultation through the process, especially on ‘water use policy’, can lead to problems. Larger issues include water stress, groundwater pollution, and related health risks.

But with the current process, we are missing the opportunity to fully adapt the fracking process for sustainable shale gas exploration in India.

As a first step, an industry-specific EIA manual on exploration and production of non-conventional hydrocarbon sources might be a good idea. Fossil’s Onshore Petroleum Research and Development (R&D) Program Office (DOE), which primarily focuses on three elements of the program – basin-specific unconventional oil and gas, produced water and data analysis – for the purpose of increasing the ultimate resilience and operational efficiency of the onshore oil and gas resources of the United States.

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The DOE’s in-country research portfolio examines scientific questions in detail at a level that is often not possible or cost-effective by industry. Current R&D activities explore the behavior of shale and reservoir from “pore to core to reservoir scale”, from nano scale to macro scale to increase final oil and gas recovery and efficiency performance, and in an environmentally sustainable manner.

A conventional reservoir is a porous rock formation containing oil and gas that has migrated from the parent rock (non-conventional reservoir). Oil and gas pipelines are better connected and can be produced by/or by vertical/tilt well. Better yield than unique. However, much of the oil and gas is left behind the borehole due to the specific reservoir nature of the basin, inefficient well design and fluid-gas interactions within the reservoir.

In contrast to conventional reservoirs, unconventional reservoirs contain oil and gas that are formed in rock and never move. Challenges to developing unique resources include geological and engineering variables that affect production from unique reservoirs.

The nature of these reservoirs is geologically complex. Rocks such as shale, tight sandstone, and carbonate rock exhibit very low permeability (almost no openings for oil and gas to flow into the borehole). The rock formations are more or less tabular.

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The storage tanks need to be hydraulically broken to create oil and gas pipelines. Well boreholes are designed to be drilled horizontally so that the well path covers the maximum thickness of the reservoir to effectively disrupt the reservoir hydraulically to allow for the maximum possible oil and gas production. Horizontal wells reduce the density of wells in the field.

The DOE study aims to enhance the ultimate oil and gas recovery from both existing and new wells in mature and emerging watersheds across our country.

DOE is developing a set of “field lab” test sites to achieve this goal. The DOE currently has approximately 17 field lab projects across the United States that conduct research in partnership with industry, academia, and DOE national laboratories to improve the resilience of traditional oil and gas resources. traditional and non-traditional using a basin-specific approach.

Each oil and natural gas reservoir in the United States has unique reservoir characteristics and requires specific strategies for oil and gas production. The DOE’s basin-specific strategy uses a three-pronged research approach – field labs, basic shale research, and a data-driven approach (using high-performance computing/ artificial intelligence and machine learning/big data technologies) to decipher the characteristics of the reservoir from the pore to the core. reservoir scale- with the ultimate goal of oil and gas recovery.

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DOE Field Laboratories will identify and promote the development of economically viable technologies to locate, characterize, and improve the efficiency of final oil and natural gas recovery as well as operating more efficiently in an environmentally sustainable manner.

Basic Shale Study conducted in collaboration with DOE national laboratories to investigate micro and nanoscale shale formation behavior to improve subsurface scientific knowledge .

Oil and gas are extracted by creating a pressure differential in a storage tank that causes oil and/or gas to flow through each other to reach the production well. Oil flows through production wells to the surface because the pressure at the bottom of the well exceeds the pressure exerted by the hydrostatic head (weight due to gravity) of the oil column in the well. The rate of oil production over time tends to decrease as reservoir pressure decreases.

The physico-chemical properties of the reservoir rock significantly affect the flow of oil and gas from the reservoir to the well, leading to low productivity. Understanding how rocks from different basins behave differently under subsurface reservoir conditions is important for improving eventual resilience.

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The DOE Basic Shale Research Methodology identifies and addresses various basin-specific barriers to enhance final oil and gas recovery while helping to remove various barriers such as low recoverability. , low permeability (lack of connected voids), ensuring flow and operational efficiency:

The DOE National Laboratory study aims to identify and mitigate these production barriers by investigating the mechanical/geochemical/hydrological response to shale resource stimulation and production through Multi-scale laboratory experiments, numerical modeling of shale deformation and fluid transport to predict fluid transport in the pore scale to the reservoir.

Data-driven approaches using Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML)/Big Data  combined with numerical/statistical modeling efforts aim to derive valuable insights meaning from the huge data generated from our research. This data can provide real-time information for the oil and gas industry’s decision-making process.

DOE’s National Laboratory uses these world-class science and cutting-edge computing capabilities to integrate physics-based statistical models, inverse models (such as neural networks, etc.) ), NLP (Natural Language Processing), Big Data Analytics, and other rapidly evolving AI/ML technologies to help derive meaningful insights from subsurface reservoir data to directly Rapid visualization and prediction in real time to enable efficient decision making. Our model will help us visualize and inform short- and long-term strategies that can be adapted over the life of the reservoir to increase total oil and gas production.

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Projects carried out under this effort can be found at DOE’s National Technology Laboratory (NETL) and Fossil Oil. The FE News subscription invite link will send regular updates to your email inbox.

Oil production from conventional reservoirs has been going on for decades. However, even in the best cases, primary, secondary, and tertiary (advanced) techniques can eventually lead to a recovery of 30 to 60% of the original oil in place, to leaving a large amount of oil in a conventional storage tank. The recovery factor for non-conventional oil recovery is even lower, around 5%, due to the relatively low permeability of non-conventional oil-bearing rocks. Thus, oil and gas trapped in unconventional reservoirs (such as oil in fractured shale source rock, kerogen in oil shale, or bitumen in tar sands) constitute a potentially great source of supply. domestic.

Application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods to overcome the physical forces holding oil and gas

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