Solar Energy In Montpellier: A Guide To Harnessing The Sun’s Power For Profit – Modeling of a wind power system using a genetic algorithm based on a doubly fed induction generator to supply power to the grid
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Solar Energy In Montpellier: A Guide To Harnessing The Sun’s Power For Profit
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By Aminata Sarr Aminata Sarr Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Y. M. Soro Y. M. Soro Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 , Alain K. Tossa Alain K. Tossa Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 and Lamine Diopit LamineDiop S. org Google Scholar 3:
Solar, Wind & Weather Forecasts. Solar Irradiance Data. Consulting
Laboratoire Energies Renouvelable et Eficacité Energétique, Institut International d’Ingénierie de l’Eau et de l’Environnement (2iE), Rue de la Science, Ouagadougou 01 BP 594, Burkina Faso
Unité de Formation et de Recherche des Sciences Agronomiques, de l’Aquaculture et des Technologies Alimentaires (UFR S2ATA), Gaston Berger University, Saint-Louis 32001, Senegal
Received: 1 March 2023 / Revised: 14 March 2023 / Accepted: 15 March 2023 / Published: 20 March 2023
Agrovoltaic systems, which consist of the combination of energy production through photovoltaic systems and agricultural production in the same area, have emerged as a promising solution to the limitations associated with the reduction of cultivated areas due to solar panels used in agricultural production systems. They also provide an opportunity to optimize land use and reduce conflicts over land access to meet the increasing demand for agricultural products and energy resulting from rapid population growth. However, selected installation configurations such as height, spacing, slope and choice of panel technology used may have negative impacts on agriculture and/or energy production. Thus, this paper addresses the need for a review that clearly explains agroforestry systems, including the factors that affect agriculture and energy production in agroforestry systems, the types of panel configurations and technologies to optimize these systems, and a synthesis of modeling studies that have already been conducted. is in this field. Several studies have been carried out in this area to find the appropriate height and spacing of solar panel installations that optimize yield as it can further be reduced by the shading created by the solar panels on the plants. It has been reported that in more than 80% of the crops tested, the yield was reduced from 62% to 3%. For this purpose, an optimization model can be developed to determine the optimal height, spacing and tilt angle of the solar panels. This model will consider factors that affect crop growth and yield, as well as factors that affect PV system performance, with the goal of maximizing both yield and energy production.
Future Proofing Our Societies
Of all natural resources, water, energy, and food are the most important to sustain life on earth [1, 2]. Water, energy and food share the common challenges of limited availability, increasing global demand and sustainability constraints . Furthermore, these essential resources are expected to face a significant increase in demand due to rapid population growth to meet the basic needs of the population . Indeed, according to UN projections, the world’s population will increase from 8.5 billion in 2030 to 9.7 billion in 2050, reaching about 10.4 billion in the 2080s . Furthermore, according to FAO , agricultural production will need to double to meet demand in developing countries, while these countries will have to face increased competition for water and energy access and constraints related to the effects of climate change. To this end, it has been predicted that production must be increased by 60%  or even doubled to meet the needs of the population in the face of population growth and changing diets . The main obstacles to agricultural development are related to access to water and energy for irrigation. Irrigation is the controlled supply of water to agriculture through artificial systems to meet water needs not met by rainfall for crop growth and development . Sophisticated and water-efficient irrigation methods have significantly increased energy requirements. The cost of energy required to operate these systems threatens the viability of many irrigation networks . For this purpose, new perspectives have emerged, in particular, the use of renewable energy in irrigation systems as an alternative to fossil fuel-powered pumping systems [11, 12], considering that the high cost of fuel and the lack of electricity, especially; in rural areas are factors that negatively affect the performance of irrigation systems . Solar PV panels are used because of their environmental benefits, cost-effectiveness, and ability to solve the problems of scarcity and unavailability of fossil fuels in some regions. The energy sector has made significant and accelerated progress in innovation related to the use of renewable energy. Around the world, 20% of global energy consumption comes from renewable sources, and about 30% of renewable investment is wind and 60% solar .
Solar photovoltaic energy has emerged as an environmentally friendly and economically viable alternative with lower energy costs [ 9 , 13 ]. Additionally, photovoltaic panels are one of the leading renewable energy technologies in the world and have seen a continuous decrease in costs over the years. It is predicted that 25% of the electricity needed in 2050 will come from solar PV, with a reduction of 4.9 Gt of CO.
However, the use of solar panels to pump water for irrigation can significantly reduce cultivated areas due to the footprint of solar panels . One of the solutions to this problem is therefore the adoption of agrovolt systems. These dual-use systems involve elevating the PV panels to use the area under the panels for agricultural purposes . Thus, this system reduces the issue of land access conflicts [18, 19]. Agrivoltaics can also significantly reduce the constraints on access to electricity for the population. According to Jamil et al. [ 20 ], agrovoltaic practices on only 1% of cultivated land could meet the energy demand of at least a quarter of the Canadian population. However, solar panels installed in an area can affect microclimate, temperature and solar radiation distribution, water, biodiversity, air quality, and ecosystem energy balance [ 21 , 22 ]. Considering the effects of solar panels on crops, a number of studies have investigated the optimal arrangement of panels to maximize crop production in the presence of panels. These studies have mainly focused on determining the height and spacing of the panels to create a suitable environment for the crops under the panels. However, these arrangements have been determined by studies that mainly focus on the radiation received under the PV array and the shading received on the crops with specific arrangements being tested [ 23 , 24 , 25 ]. Other studies investigated panel orientation through field experiments . Kim et al.  worked on the simulation of hybrid performance of agrovoltaic system in South Korea. Their model focused on the variation in the amount of electricity generated and the yield obtained based on incident radiation, as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions on radiation. To compare shading levels, three different shading ratios (21.3%, 25.6%, and 32%) were tested, and the shading ratio was calculated as panel area divided by system area. For all three tests, a height of 5.42 m was used and the shadow velocity was based on module density. However, there are still limited research and decision-making tools to determine the appropriate configuration for the crop being grown. Thus, modeling studies to determine the optimal panel height, spacing, and slope to maximize growth and development for a given crop and panel performance will help users find the right configuration.
To achieve our goal, this review focuses on clearly explaining the operation of agrovoltaic systems and its various components, as well as the factors that affect each of them. We believe that a large literature review will allow us to identify the most important parameters
Study: Ai Enabled Energy Management System
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