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Strategies For Reducing Standby Power Consumption In Marseille – Many power sources, especially offline power sources, require low standby power. The most cost-effective isolated topology for power levels below 100 W is a setback because it requires the fewest components. Flyback converters often generate multiple secondary outputs, requiring relatively precise regulation. This article will describe the challenges of achieving well-regulated output voltages while still achieving low standby power.
Low power AC/DC flyback power supplies are widely used in industrial applications such as motor drives and appliances because they can achieve good voltage regulation and low standby power losses. A typical application for an isolated low power design often requires more than one secondary output. Figure 1 shows an example of a flyback topology that generates the outputs V
Strategies For Reducing Standby Power Consumption In Marseille
). Transformer T1 provides galvanic isolation between the AC power line (main) and the loads. Auxiliary winding AUX drives the primary-side flyback controller.
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Figure 1 The simplified schematic of a multiple-output flyback that provides galvanic isolation between AC power line and loads. Source: Texas Instruments
Let’s briefly review the known techniques for reducing standby power. Standby power mainly depends on the cycle energy, start-up circuit, snobber network and minimum load requirement. Reducing the no-load switching frequency and using active start-up circuits and a Zener damper network instead of a resistor-capacitor-diode damper results in lower standby power. Unfortunately, other circuit characteristics can also increase standby losses. It is therefore useful to develop a strategy in advance that will help keep the standby power low.
One of the main challenges for a power supply designer is that it is impossible to build an ideal circuit, as any real board has to deal with parasitic capacitances and inductances, as well as with noise in the system.
These challenges become even greater when two or more isolated outputs are generated, as shown in Figure 1. Normally, a voltage control loop regulates only one output; connecting the transformer windings semi-regulates the other output. Figure 2 shows the regulation of one output. An external error amplifier (U1) connects to output V
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(3.3 V), is only semi-regulated due to the coupling of the transformer windings. But what happens during standby mode with a light or no-charge state? To answer this question, consider Figure 3, which shows the secondary winding voltages—also called secondary switching nodes—of V
Figure 3 Overshoot of the secondary-side switch nodes can be a challenge at light or no load conditions. Source: Texas Instruments
You can easily recognize the leftovers, followed by laziness towards the end of the evening meal. Basically, the excess reflects from the primary switching node to the secondary side. This overshoot can be a challenge at light or no load conditions, especially for an unregulated output, because it loads the output capacitance through output diodes D1 and D2, as shown in Figure 1. The overshoot can cause the unregulated output voltage to rise to very high values.
What is the root cause of accidental overshoot and lag? These are the parasitic characteristics of the power stage and board, including the leakage inductance of the transformer. The leakage inductance is caused by the magnetic flux of one winding in a transformer that does not connect to other windings. This energy dissipates externally to the transformer and an overshoot occurs. Figure 4 shows the primary switch-node voltage, which is basically the drain-to-source voltage of the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET).
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Now that you’ve seen how overshoot can have a detrimental effect on cross-regulation for light loads, the question arises: Why don’t you just clamp it hard? Typically, a snubber clamp circuit limits the residual voltage to a certain level. The clamping circuit absorbs energy stored in the transformer’s leakage inductance and, depending on the value of the clamping voltage, will also absorb a fraction of the magnetizing energy. The energy lost in the clamp increases rapidly as the clamp voltage drops.
Because of the high energy losses, you must allow for a certain link-node voltage overshoot. The minimum overshoot depends mainly on the leakage inductance. With an existing transformer it is not possible to clamp the residual to every intended level. You should think about an optimized transformer structure before ordering a custom transformer sample. The goal should be to minimize the ratio of the leakage to the magnetizing inductance.
The leakage inductance depends largely on the physical winding geometry. In general, two changes will reduce the leakage inductance: reducing the dielectric spacing between the primary and secondary windings and increasing the surface area of overlap between them. So, using an interleaving winding structure and a wider coil and moving the layers further together will result in low leakage inductance. Unfortunately, there is a trade-off. These changes usually involve increasing the parasitic interwinding capacitance, which increases common mode electromagnetic interference. Therefore, you should work closely with a transformer manufacturer from the start to find an optimized transformer structure.
). Some applications require tighter regulation of the lower output voltage because it typically requires a smaller tolerance. Assume that V
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. This configuration can work well for a system with low parasitics, including low leakage inductance, even at light loads.
However, if the leakage inductance is large, the coupling of the windings is poor and the overshoots are large, then the cross-regulation is no longer good because the transformer winding voltage ratio is no longer directly proportional to the winding turns ratio. As a result, V
Can rise very quickly, easily becoming twice the intended level or even larger. A resistor or Zener diode will limit the voltage but also greatly increase the standby power. So, you will have to consider other possibilities.
Therefore, instead of regulating the lower output voltage, it may be useful to regulate the higher output voltage V
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, in principle the low voltage output can reach at most the level of the high voltage output. This means that in some cases it is beneficial to regulate the higher voltage because it will maintain a lower absolute maximum voltage in the system.
As always, there is a trade-off because regulating the unregulated output will be worse. A compromise would be to regulate both outputs simultaneously, as shown in Figure 5. This works well as long as you don’t need isolation between the outputs, but has a disadvantage in that it becomes impossible to regulate either output with very high precision.
Another alternative would be to take the inner loop – which connects to the anode of the optocoupler – from one output and the outer voltage loop from the other output, as shown in Figure 6, to obtain precise regulation of V
Because the final regulation depends greatly on the parasitic capacitances and inductances of the power stage components and layout, the evaluation of the alternatives in the laboratory is recommended.
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Modern flyback controllers can achieve very low standby power because a pulse width modulation algorithm varies both the switching frequency and primary current while maintaining the discontinuous conduction mode. This algorithm reduces the switching frequency and peak current for light loads. With a modern flyback controller, it is even possible to achieve standby power of less than 20 mW for certain applications. However, when designing a power supply, it is essential to avoid causes that increase power dissipation.
To achieve low standby power, it is essential to reduce the energy taken from the input each cycle by lowering the switching frequency and primary peak current, using an active start-up circuit and reducing the secondary-side preload resistors. A good layout also reduces noise in the system, while suitable damping networks for the primary and secondary switching nodes can further reduce noise and overshoot. Finally, don’t neglect the transformer; besides the controller, it is the most important part of the power supply.
Pdf) A Study On The Energy Consumption Of The Electrical And Electronic Household And Office Equipment In Standby And Off Mode
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