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Strategies For Reducing Standby Power Consumption In Montpellier
The feature paper represents the most advanced research with great potential for high impact in the field. A Feature Paper should be a large original Article that involves several techniques or approaches, provides insights for future research directions and describes possible research applications.
Pdf) A Study On The Energy Consumption Of The Electrical And Electronic Household And Office Equipment In Standby And Off Mode
Feature papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editor and must receive positive feedback from reviewers.
Editors’ Choice articles are based on recommendations by scientific editors of journals from around the world. The editors select a small number of recently published articles in journals that they believe will be of particular interest to readers, or important in their respective research areas. The aim is to provide an overview of some of the most interesting works published in various research areas of the journal.
By Daniel L. Gerber Daniel L. Gerber Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Alan Meier Alan Meier Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, Richard Liou Richard Liou Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 2 and Robert Hosbach Robert Hosbach Scilit Preprints. org Google Scholar 1
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 5 May 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019 / Published: 23 May 2019
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Despite technical advances in efficiency, devices in standby mode continue to consume up to 16% of residential electricity. Finding practical and cost-effective reductions is difficult. Although power consumption per unit has decreased, the number of units that continue to draw power continues to increase. This work examines a group of technologies that can eliminate the use of standby in various types of electrical plug loads. It also investigated several solutions in detail and developed prototypes. First, burst mode and sleep transistors are established as building blocks for a zero-standby solution. This work then examines the application of two types of wake signals. The first is from optical transmission, and can be used on remote control devices with line-of-sight activation, such as set-top boxes, ceiling fans and motorized curtains. The second is from a wake-up radio, and can be used for any wireless product. No single technology will address all standby power situations; however, this emerging solution appears to have broad applicability for saving standby energy in various plug loads.
Standby power consumption by appliances, electrical devices and other products continues to represent 3–16% (varies by definition and country) of residential electricity consumption [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Substantial progress in reducing standby use in certain products has been achieved through various policies and technologies. For example, technical advances in mobile phone chargers, the most visible manifestation of standby use, have enabled the reduction of off-mode power from more than 2 W in 2000 to below 0.3 W today. Most new low-voltage power supplies have standby consumption below 0.5 W, reflecting minimum energy efficiency standards in Europe, California, and elsewhere .
However, the past twenty years have seen an explosion in the number of devices that rely on power supplies and draw power continuously. The growth can be attributed to the proliferation of devices that require direct current (DC) and/or network power, traditional alternating current (AC) powered devices that now have electronics, and portable devices with batteries. Most of these devices fall into the category of multiple electrical loads (MELs), which continue to grow rapidly in terms of both population and energy consumption . At the same time, many more devices require higher functionality to maintain communication. These devices fall under the broad category of Internet of Things (IoT).
With the increasing number and diversity of electronic products with standby mode, the need to reduce standby power continues to be an important policy and evolving technical challenge. However, as technology matures, there is a diminishing potential for savings per device, coupled with an increasing number and variety of electronic products with standby modes. This means that the cost of “saving the last watt” must be very low to justify the cost. For reference, saving one watt of continuous power equates to just 8.8 kWh/year, or about $1.50 at U.S. residential electricity rates. normal
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This work examines various approaches to further reduce or eliminate the use of standby in plug loads. It then investigates several solutions in detail and develops a prototype. Although IEC 62301:2011  considers standby power less than 5 mW to be “essentially zero”, this work shows a plug-in load solution with less than 10 µW consumption. The incredible variety of ready-made products means that no single solution is likely to emerge. Instead, a portfolio of widely applicable solutions presents the best path forward, and this work contributes to that portfolio.
The energy consumption behavior of a device can be represented as a histogram of the time spent in each power mode. As exemplified for the desktop computer in Figure 1, many modern devices operate with long continuous periods at low power and intermittent intermittent periods at high power. The area under the ladder corresponds to the annual energy consumption of the device. Our solution aims to reduce power and standby mode duration, in a savings strategy referred to as “shrinking the ladder”.
There are several technical strategies to reduce standby usage. The first is to increase the efficiency of the device in various modes, which reduces the overall power consumption. Another technique involves adding devices to harvest and store ambient energy, which can be used during low-power operation. Finally, modifications in the operational design and internal circuitry can reduce or eliminate the use of various low-power modes. This paper focuses on the latter technique.
In certain applications, devices can operate for periods of time without any grid-supplied power . This period of time has been called the “standzero” time . Many mobile devices already have long zero standby times, and the solutions presented in this paper can improve zero standby times in many other types of devices.
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The wide variety of ready-made electronics requires the development of a portfolio of solutions. Past work has proposed many standby reduction techniques, some of which are shown in Figure 2. These techniques can reduce standby consumption at the chip, device, or system level.
Several chip-level techniques focus on reducing the quiescent power consumption of integrated circuits (ICs). Reducing device leakage can be achieved through improvements to the IC process, or through the use of sleep transistors [15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20]. As discussed in Section 3, most device-level solutions reuse sleep transistors as discrete solid-state switches.
“Standby killers” are a family of device-level solutions that use solid-state switches or mechanical relays to disconnect devices from power when they enter standby. Most of these solutions require an external wake-up signal to activate. Various zero standby solutions in previous work generate their wake signals optically with infrared [21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28] or laser [29, 30], mechanically with switches  or piezoelectric devices [32, 33, 34], thermally with thermistor  or peltier devices , or through passive RF (radio frequency) transmission [37, 38, 39, 40]. A near-zero standby solution uses an ultra-low power receiver to process the wake-up signal. These solutions include radio wake-up [41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49], occupancy sensors [50, 51, 52, 53], power line communication [54, 55], or wake- on-LAN [56, 57, 58].
DARPA’s N-Zero research program has recently demonstrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as a promising alternative to silicon-based standby killers . N-Zero produces a family of MEMS-based solutions that allow the use of high sensitivity and sub-microwatt in sensor applications with infrared (IR) [27, 28], acoustic , chemical , and RF [48, 49] wake-up methods. sleep Although they are intended for battery-powered sensors, this solution may also have potential in plug-in load applications. However, MEMS may experience lifetime problems due to oxidation or damage at relatively high plug load voltages.
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Other device-level solutions can reduce standby consumption without disconnecting power. Consumption can be reduced on power converters by increasing their efficiency or operating in burst mode [62, 63, 64, 65]. The device can also use additional energy harvesting and storage to cover standby mode. Finally, the task of the device can be selectively modulated and deactivated based on the mode of operation [66, 67, 68].
System-level techniques involve controlling the standby status of multiple devices in the network. Detecting occupancy or predicting user patterns allows centrally managed buildings to selectively turn off unused devices [69, 70, 71, 72, 73]. Another prime target for standby reduction is in Internet-connected devices with automatic updates. Future routers may use scheduling algorithms to allocate time and bandwidth for updates, and deactivate devices when finished [74, 75, 76]. The final solution is to distribute power through a DC power server module, which can act as a
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