The Business Case For Renewable Energy Adoption In Marseille – Shrinking Historic Neighborhoods and the Dilution of Authenticity: The Unspoken Challenge of Historic Chinatowns in the United States through the Case of San Francisco

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The Business Case For Renewable Energy Adoption In Marseille

The Business Case For Renewable Energy Adoption In Marseille

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By Joseph Kiesecker Joseph Kiesecker Scilit Google Scholar 1, * , Sharon Baruch-Mordo Sharon Baruch-Mordo Scilit Google Scholar 1, * , Mike Heiner Mike Heiner Scilit Google Scholar 1 , Dhaval Negandhi Sci Dhaval Negandhi Google Scholar 2 , James Oakleaf James Oakleaf Scilit Google Scholar 1 , Christina Kennedy Christina Kennedy Scilit Google Scholar 1 and Pareexit Chauhan Pareexit Chauhan Scilit Google Scholar 3

Renewable Energy Through The Lens Of Entrepreneurship Theory

Center for the Study of Science, Technology and Policy, No. 18 & 19, 10th Cross, Mayura Street, Papanna Layout, Nagashettyhalli (RMV Phase II), Bengaluru 560094, India

Received: 25 November 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 19 December 2019 / Published: 30 December 2019

India has pledged to reduce emissions with a target of increasing renewable energy production to 175 gigawatts (GW) by 2022. Achieving this objective will require a rapid increase in the deployment of solar and wind energy, while at the same time facing address the challenges associated with funding. requirements, environmental impacts, and power grid integration. Developing energy on lands degraded by human activities rather than placing new infrastructure within natural habitats or areas with high productivity agriculture would reduce the cumulative impact and reduce land use conflicts. We estimated that the potential capacity of converted land across India is 1789 GW, which is >10 times the targets for 2022. At the same time, the total land footprint required to meet the renewable energy target of India 2022 to reach large, between ~55,000 and 125,000 km.

The Business Case For Renewable Energy Adoption In Marseille

, which are roughly the size of Himachal Pradesh or Chhattisgarh, respectively. If renewable energy is promoted with the sole aim of maximizing resource capacity, approximately 6700–11, 900 km.

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May affect agricultural land. Subsidies and incentive programs aimed at promoting the use of low-impact renewable energy and establishing mitigation obligations that raise costs for projects that create land impacts could improve public support for renewable energy.

Renewable energy; Paris climate agreement; nationally determined contributions; impacts of energy development; sustainable development; energy dissipation; wind energy; Solar Energy

India, the world’s third largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitter, is committed to renewable energy as a solution to reduce emissions and address the challenges of energy access and poverty. The Government of India (GoI) has declared its intention to increase domestic renewable energy to 175 gigawatts (GW) by 2022. Within the 2022 target, wind energy will comprise ~60 GW and solar photovoltaic (PV) ~100 GW (40 GW). from rooftop installations) [1]. In addition, India aims to achieve a cumulative installed power capacity of 40% from renewable sources by 2030 and 100% electrification of vehicles by 2030: targets that are expected to add an additional power requirement of 125 GW and 150 GW, respectively [2]. However, many studies have questioned the land-based goals of deploying solar energy and have drawn attention to the difficulties associated with access to the grid and disputes over land use [3, 4, 5]. Acquiring the land is also a big challenge for private companies working in the wind energy sector [6, 7]. With a significant portion of India’s land already under human modification, and given its population is projected to increase by 20% in the next 40 years [8], meeting the land requirements necessary for renewable energy to be installed in accordance with the 2022 target, so it is possible. , intensifying land conflicts in India [9, 10].

In addition to commitments to increase renewable energy production, India’s Green Mission (GIM) recognizes the impact of the forestry sector on climate mitigation, food and water security, biodiversity conservation, and the livelihoods of its communities. depend on forest [11]. The GIM seeks to increase forest/tree cover and forest condition by 10 million hectares over 10 years [11]. In addition, by 2025, India’s population is expected to surpass that of China [8], resulting in the need for more land to house, feed and provide energy for this growing population [10]. Simultaneously meeting renewable energy development targets, increasing forest cover, and devoting land to support a growing population (eg food production) will require proactive land use planning for conflicts. avoid misuse of land.

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Previous studies [3, 12, 13, 14, 15] have estimated the total potential amount of renewable energy available in India, and even if India can achieve the 2022 targets [16], but as far as we know, none have examined the potential impacts on existing agricultural and natural lands from renewable energy development if located without considering current land use. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential impact on agricultural and natural lands from renewable energy development if located regardless of current land use (unconstrained scenario). We also assessed whether the 2022 targets could be achieved if renewable energy development were restricted to lands already converted or degraded by human activities (constraint scenario). We suggest that this would reduce future conflict with other human uses and reduce the loss and degradation of natural lands and associated biodiversity and ecosystem services. Our projections are based on the 2022 GoI vision for projected wind and solar energy development for each state (Figure 1, Table 1). The 2022 forecast details a spatial and temporal roadmap for achieving the wind and solar renewable energy targets, including unique wind and solar GW targets for each state. As some renewable energy facilities have already been installed (~60 GW), we report results as a range between total 2022 targets and remaining targets (i.e., 2022 targets – 2017 installed capacity; hereafter referred to as total targets and targets remaining, respectively). Finally, the proliferation of rooftop solar has been slow in India and solar development to date has consisted largely of ground-based solar [15] (Table 1). If this trend continues it could increase the need for land use for development. To address the potential of rooftop solar, we compared the land-use change impacts when all renewable energy targets are met only with land-based development, and when states and territories meet their rooftop and land-based solar targets separately. By calculating the different land use change results between the two analyses, we determined the amount of natural and agricultural land conversion that can be avoided if rooftop and ground solar targets were met separately.

We focused our analyzes on excluded land and water bodies and snow cover types based on the 2011–2012 Land Use Land Cover (LULC) layer provided by the National Remote Sensing Center of India [17]. We also excluded areas where land-based utility-scale wind and solar energy development is less likely, i.e., within urban areas (building cover types in LULC) and protected areas (including all types of designations) [18 , 19]. All spatial analyzes were performed in ArcMap v. 10.3 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA) [20] and R program version 3.4.3 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) [21].

We then estimated the technical potential of renewable energy on suitable land for wind solar and utility-scale photovoltaics (PV; also known as ground-based solar) at 1-km resolution, following that outlined in Baruch- Mordo et al. 2019[22]. In line with the feasibility criteria for the development of each sector we have excluded for wind: any cell with wind speed 30% and elevation >2000 m; and for PV: any cell with a slope >5%. PV technologies remove global horizontal irradiance (GHI). Because many estimates of global or regional PV technical potential do not apply GHI thresholds [23, 24, 25, 26], and because GHI values ​​in India exceeded most previously used thresholds (e.g. , 1500 kWh/m.

The Business Case For Renewable Energy Adoption In Marseille

[27, 28]), we did not apply any GHI capacity threshold for PV. For each remaining suitable cell, we then estimated the annual GWh generation available using: PD*CFi*8760/1000, where PD is power density or the MW produced per kilometer.

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For PV), there is CFi

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