The Economics Of Energy Retrofitting In Marseille: Calculating Roi – Energy Saving Potential in the Public Housing Apartment of the Valencian Community Region Applying the MedZEB Cost-Optimal Methodology

Internal Environmental Quality Evaluation Strategy as an Upgrading Measure (Renovation) in a Historic Building Located in the Mediterranean Area (Athens, Greece)

The Economics Of Energy Retrofitting In Marseille: Calculating Roi

The Economics Of Energy Retrofitting In Marseille: Calculating Roi

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The Future Of Urban Housing Is Energy Efficient Refrigerators

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Prefabricated Zero Energy Retrofit Technologies

Holistic impact and environmental efficiency of retrofitting interventions on buildings in the Mediterranean area: a directional distance function approach

By Monica Cariola Monica Cariola Scilit Google Scholar 1, * , Greta Falavigna Greta Falavigna Scilit Google Scholar 1, * et Francesca Picenni Francesca Picenni Scilit Google Scholar 2, *

Istituto di Ricerca per la Crescita Economica Sostenibile del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche d’Italia (CNR-IRCrES), 10024 Moncalieri, TO, Italy

The Economics Of Energy Retrofitting In Marseille: Calculating Roi

The Institute of Construction Technologies of the Italian National Research Council (CNR-ITC), 20098 San Giuliano Milanese, MI, Italy

Deep Energy Retrofit Of Commercial Buildings: A Key Pathway Toward Low Carbon Cities

Received: September 16, 2021 / Revised: November 10, 2021 / Accepted: November 12, 2021 / Published: November 15, 2021

The study focuses on the application of a non-parametric methodology for the evaluation of the sustainability of retrofitting interventions to be applied to different types of buildings and different climatic zones of the Mediterranean area. The document starts from the analysis of the data collected through the HAPPEN project, that is to say a European H2020 project that proposes a holistic approach for a deep and sustainable renovation of the Mediterranean residential building. Although the European Commission has allocated considerable funds for retrofitting interventions, the choice of the optimal solution is not always so easy because many variables have to be considered. The present manuscript proposes a methodology to compare different retrofitting solutions that combines Life Cycle Cost estimates (ie, LCC) with the non-parametric Directional Distance Function (ie, DDF) approach. In detail, the literature suggests that the DDF can be used effectively to compare different observations through efficiency scores. The main result of the paper is the definition of a hybrid methodology that, starting from LCC estimates and applying a DDF technique, represents a simple method to evaluate the best retrofitting intervention. The results are represented by two scores where the first one represents a holistic efficiency measure, while the last one shows an environmental efficiency score.

The role of environmental sustainability has grown over time in all industrial sectors, and therefore the commitment of the European Union and researchers to study the impact of energy consumption and related emissions has increased . However, in general, great efforts have been spent to reduce emissions and increase energy savings in all processes. The construction industry makes up about 35% of the EU’s buildings, which are over 50 years old, and almost 75% of the buildings are energy inefficient. Only 0.4-1.2% (depending on the country) of the building is renovated every year [1]. The European Union is trying to increase building renovation rates by encouraging projects that propose deep retrofitting interventions.

The data presented and analyzed in this document were collected thanks to the H2020 project “The Holistic Approach and the Platform for the deep renovation of the medium residential built environment (HAPPEN)” (accessed November 6, 2021).

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HAPPEN pursues the development and activation of a holistic, transparent and adaptive approach to the deep and beyond (=toward nZEB, close to Zero Emission Buildings) retrofitting of buildings, specifically for the Med (Mediterranean) area, and called MedZEB. Such an approach has mainly targeted the residential sector (private and public). The development of the retrofitting market is facing difficulties throughout Europe, but these difficulties assume specific characteristics in the Med area, due to environmental and climatic factors, to the structure of the property and the building built to particular social conditions and economic From this framework, the HAPPEN project established a strategy that goes beyond the mere physical needs of buildings and technological aspects to integrate social, entrepreneurial, financial, technical, regulatory and environmental aspects. The final goal was a significant reduction of the gap between the design and the actual energy performance of the buildings, inducing the strengthening of confidence towards the retrofitting market. On this basis, it was possible to transform the MedZEB approach into a real, ambitious and effective retrofitting program at the Med-wide.

One of the aspects studied in the project is the analysis of the environmental efficiency together with the financial-economic sustainability of the retrofitting interventions, starting from the data collected in the HAPPEN project and in particular from which of the POS ( Packages of Solutions) identified in the project. i [2], specific for each climatic zone considered and for different types of reference buildings. Each POS contains 12 possible deep retrofitting solutions for residential buildings of the climate zone and country to which it refers. The POS are adapted to the specific needs of the Mediterranean area and address all the most relevant aspects of renovation design, including interior comfort and well-being, and integration with Renewable Energy Sources. They are designed to optimize the investment in retrofitting by pursuing the highest energy savings and interior well-being at the lowest cost. To achieve these results, they are based on an optimal cost approach according to EU regulations, aimed at minimizing the Life Cycle Cost of renewal over 30 years [3]. They are calculated to reach the standards of deep renovation (that is, above 60% of energy savings) [2].

Although, in general, Life Cycle Costing and Life Cycle Assessment (i.e. LCC and LCA) are the most widely used and comprehensive methodologies for estimating the impact of interventions of retrofitting, they require very detailed data that are not always easily available.

The Economics Of Energy Retrofitting In Marseille: Calculating Roi

Also, for this reason, researchers have studied new methodologies capable of evaluating the environmental efficiency of a process, taking emissions as unwanted (or bad) outputs of a production process [4]. A pivotal work is from [5] that modifies the standard limitations of the Data Envelopment Analysis (ie, DEA) approach, proposing a hyperbolic efficiency measure able to consider even unwanted outputs. Starting from this application, many researchers have tried different DEA models with the aim of also considering the bad production outputs. For example, references [6, 7, 8] apply stochastic boundaries with bad outputs, but the most effective model to consider environmental emissions recognized by the literature is the Directional Distance Function (ie, DDF). Indeed, one of the main strengths of this methodology (DDF) is the possibility of modifying the direction of the search vector, without modifying its technological definition [9, 10]. Moreover, another benefit of the DDF is the possibility to establish the linear program without assuming a specific form of technological function (that is, the property of additivity [11]).

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Starting from the late 1990s, an increasing number of researchers began to apply the DDF methodology in various polluting industries [11, 12, 13]. However, considering the advantages of this technique, in more recent years, many studies have considered applying the DDF in many other fields [14, 15, 16, 17, 18].

In summary, to estimate the impact of retrofitting interventions, the most appropriate methodologies are Life Cycle Costing and Life Cycle Assessment [19, 20, 21], but the difficulty in the availability of data, especially for LCA, has stimulated researchers to find more effective solutions in proposing hybrid methodologies.

Until now, to our knowledge, the literature did not present the application of non-parametric methodologies, such as the Directional Distance Function, to the estimation of retrofitting interventions. Recent studies, for example [22, 23], analyze the possibility of using the directional distance or data envelopment analysis combined with other methodologies to evaluate the power plant with non-standard models.

As suggested by [23], the present is a methodological document that aims to propose a simple combined methodology to classify the retrofitting solution considering a multidimensional vision. The proposed methodology aims to cover this lack by proposing a synthetic score combined with a key-variables to guide the decision-making process in the field of retrofitting. Indeed, the scores obtained through the Directional Distance Function, and more generally, Data Envelopment Analysis, are recognized as composite indicators, and are applied in many fields [24, 25, 26].

The Blooming Economy Of Home Energy Retrofits Means New Technology, New Jobs, Cleaner World

In the present work, we propose a hybrid methodology with the aim of considering the ACV as an input for the DDF model and the

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