“the Impact Of Electric Vehicles On Residential Energy Consumption” – A comparative study of clean technology based on the use of DSF in occupied buildings to improve comfort in winter

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“the Impact Of Electric Vehicles On Residential Energy Consumption”

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Switching To An Ev Is The Environmentally Positive Change You Can Make Today

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The Impact Of Electric Vehicles On The Logistics Industry

Received: 23 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2021 / Published: 1 February 2021

Electric vehicle (EV) penetration is increasing globally and is expected to continue its exponential growth in the coming decades. Several countries have already announced plans to achieve full or partial electrification of their vehicle fleets. Such rapid transport electrification will have a significant impact on the society and businesses that support the transport industry. Additionally, new business opportunities will be available to support this technological evolution. In this paper, the business opportunities emerging from EVs and their supporting infrastructure are reviewed. It is noted that a number of businesses such as sustainable mining and manufacturing need to be developed prior to EV growth as this provides the necessary initial platform for EV adoption. Other businesses such as fleet optimization, battery management and recycling can be developed at a later stage. All these affairs also have social and technological implications, which drive policy decisions. Regional governments play a critical role in ensuring the smooth execution of the transition to transport electrification through social programs such as training and education for equitable growth and legislative decisions such as technology standardization.

Electric vehicles (EVs) were invented over a century ago but have gained widespread popularity only in the last decade [1]. Most car manufacturers have launched or announced their lines of EVs, including cars, SUVs, and trucks [2, 3, 4]. Some companies have announced that they will manufacture only electric cars in the future (Tesla is currently the single largest manufacturer of electric-only vehicles), but most are committed to dedicating a significant portion of their fleet to electric or hybrid vehicles.

Several factors such as climate change, emission reduction, growth of renewable energy resources, volatile oil prices, reducing battery costs and government policies [5, 6, 7] have led to this shift in vehicle manufacturers. Most of these factors are interdependent, and together, they can help reduce the impact of climate change. Several researchers are studying the details of electric vehicle technology so that their overall efficiency and performance can be improved. Hannan et al. examined various aspects of hybrid electric vehicles [8], Du and Ouyang studied the policy impact on the growth of the Chinese EV market [9], De Santis et al. The effect of using back-to-back dual-motor mounting on powertrain efficiency is simulated [10]. Li et al. In their recent paper, the powertrain efficiency of different configurations and resource types was compared [11]. Several other researchers have focused on the environmental impact of EV adoption and improvements in technology [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ].

Impact Of Evs (electric Vehicles) On Logistics

However, the growth of EVs not only has a positive impact on environmental sustainability, but also a significant impact on transportation businesses [9]. Many researchers have focused on business and incentive models that increase EV adoption rates in the community. Benzidea et al. focused on buyer perspectives affecting the adoption of hybrid and battery electric vehicles [16]. Jones et al. studied the impact of EVs on the transportation strategies of rural businesses looking for vehicle electrification [17]. Other researchers have evaluated consumer behavior and preferences related to ownership and leasing structures, demographic diversity, and other factors influencing EV penetration [ 7 , 18 , 19 ]. However, most researchers have not focused on the business opportunities that entrepreneurs and established companies can create and develop through the accelerated growth of EVs. Many businesses are directly affected by the growth of EVs, while others are affected by the growth of EVs. Businesses such as car manufacturers and charging infrastructure providers will need to make technological and business model innovations ahead of EV growth, while some businesses, such as battery recycling, will experience growth after widespread adoption of EVs. Based on the differences in their development cycle from EVs, these businesses can be called “frontrunner” and “follower” businesses, respectively.

In this article, a comprehensive overview of the business opportunities enabled by electric vehicles and their socioeconomic impacts on local and global communities is provided. The lifecycle of an EV is reviewed and business models are categorized based on which phase of the EVs lifecycle they contribute to. Finally, the social, technological and policy implications of these business models are discussed. The conclusions drawn in this paper may be useful for identifying new research opportunities that could impact business due to the EV revolution.

Electric vehicle (EV) penetration worldwide is growing slowly but steadily, and EVs are expected to occupy a substantial percentage of all consumer vehicles by 2030 [20]. Currently, EVs account for ~1% of all light-duty consumer vehicles, but will account for 2.5% of all sales in 2019 [21, 22]. Norway is the only country to reach 50% EV penetration, followed by Iceland at ~22% and the Netherlands at ~15%. On the other hand, China and US have achieved ~5% and ~2% penetration respectively [22]. Other countries in developing economies either have low EV penetration to date or lack the availability of reliable data. For example, most three-wheelers in many Indian cities have started using lead-acid batteries instead of oil for operation, but since they are not typical four-wheelers, their data is not publicly available.

Although the adoption rates observed so far seem low, there has been exponential growth in EV adoption over the past few years. Such exponential trends are expected to continue in the future. Various countries have set aggressive targets for EV adoption and suppliers are racing to meet market demands. Table 1. Shows some countries and their declared targets by 2019.

Electric Vehicle Trends

These are ambitious goals for some countries; Many of them will have to show extensive growth in the coming years to meet them. As most countries do not have interim annual targets, it is difficult to assess whether or not they are on track to meet these targets. For example, India’s ambition of 30% EV cars by 2030 equates to 102 million vehicles. However, as of March 2020, only half a million electric vehicles have been registered [37]. Canada, on the other hand, has interim targets, but progress made through the third quarter of 2020 shows they are likely to miss those targets without any additional measures. These examples show that there is a mismatch between the EV market share vision and current status in several countries; These countries will need to deploy aggressive incentives or other promotional campaigns to achieve their goals. Despite these challenges, countries are working towards increasing transport electrification and as they progress towards their goals, businesses that rely on the current state of the transport sector will need to adapt to changing technology. Additionally, some new businesses will necessarily emerge, while some existing businesses may experience a contraction in revenue. The following sections describe the various stages of an EV’s lifecycle and the associated business development opportunities.

A typical life cycle for a product consists of three stages—production, consumption, and end-of-life. Several upstream and downstream processes enable this product lifecycle. Cradle-to-grave assessment of electric vehicles includes these steps, along with any upstream or downstream impacts. Figure 1 illustrates the overall value chain of an electric vehicle. The process takes energy and material inputs and results in air, water, and emissions.

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