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Compared to its agricultural resources, the country is far less well equipped with energy resources. Coal reserves are estimated at around 140 million tons, but French coal has suffered from being difficult and expensive to mine and from mediocre quality. In 1958, annual production was about 60 million tons; 40 years later this total has fallen to less than 6 million tons; and in 2004, the last coal mine was closed. Imported coal supplemented domestic production for a long time. Imports originate mainly from Australia, the United States, South Africa and Germany.
The Role Of Renewable Energy In Bordeaux: Sustainable And Profitable Options
Other energy resources are in short supply. Natural gas was first exploited in southwestern France (near Lacq) in 1957. Production then increased significantly, only to decline after 1978 as reserves were depleted. Until the late 1990s, production was negligible, requiring high levels of imports, mainly from the North Sea (Norway and the Netherlands), Algeria and Russia. France has few oil reserves, and production from wells in Aquitaine and the Paris Basin is extremely limited. Uranium is mined in the Central Massif, and, although recoverable reserves are estimated at around 50,000 tons, more than half of the annual consumption must be imported. France, however, possesses fast-flowing rivers flowing from mountainous regions that provide it with abundant hydroelectric resources.
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The metal industry is poorly supplied with indigenous raw materials, although France has traditionally been an important producer of iron ore and bauxite. Iron ore production exceeded 60 million tons in the early 1960s, originating mainly from Lorraine; but production has now ceased, notwithstanding the continued existence of reserves. Due to their low metal content and difficult agglomeration, Lorraine ores have long been replenished and have now been replaced by richer overseas supplies from countries such as Brazil, Sweden and Australia. Bauxite production is negligible, although other mineralized ores, such as those containing lead, zinc and silver, are mined in very small quantities. Larger quantities of potash (produced in Alsace), sodium chloride (from mines in Lorraine and Franche-Comté and from salt marshes in western and southern France), and sulfur (obtained from natural gas in Aquitaine) have been produced, but again the trend is towards production declines as reserves are depleted. The supply of stone, sand and gravel is relatively ubiquitous.
During the years after World War II, the increase in energy demand closely followed the rate of economic growth. Thus, for most of the period up to 1973, consumption grew rapidly. Then, after two oil price spikes in 1973 and 1979, demand stabilized, followed by a decline in the early 1980s, until growth rates recovered after the mid-1980s.
The demand for different types of energy has changed significantly over time. In the early post-war years, coal provided most of the energy needs. By the 1960s, however, as its price was falling in real terms, oil was used in ever-increasing quantities, so that by 1973, crude oil accounted for about two-thirds of energy consumption. Since then, a more diverse usage pattern has emerged. Coal now plays only a minor role, while oil use has also declined, replaced in part by natural gas and especially nuclear power, which now accounts for more than one-third of primary energy consumption. One of the main consequences of these changes is the reduction of the country’s previously high dependence on external sources of supply.
Oil has long been France’s main energy importer, leading to the growth of a large refining industry, with plants concentrated in two areas of the Seine Valley (Le Havre and Rouen) and in the region around Fos-sur-Mer and Étang de Berre. Many markets are supplied with petroleum products by pipeline, which is also the way natural gas is distributed. Algerian imports arrive in the form of liquefied natural gas (primarily methane) and are unloaded in French ports where regasification plants operate.
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Since the early 1980s, one of the most significant changes in energy supply has been the significantly increased role of nuclear energy, at the expense of fuel oil and coal; even the production of hydroelectric energy has stabilized, because the most suitable locations have already been used, especially those in the valleys of the Rhine and Rhone, the Central Massif and the Alps. In contrast, nuclear generation, which had benefited from large government investments from the early 1970s, expanded enormously in the 1980s, particularly with the construction of sites in the Rhône and Loire valleys, reflecting the need for large quantities of cooling water. By the 21st century, more than three-quarters of France’s electricity was generated by nuclear power plants, the largest share in the world, enabling the country to become a major exporter of such energy. More recently, development has slowed significantly as demand has fallen and environmental groups have campaigned against further investment. France’s nuclear industry also includes a large uranium enrichment plant at Pierrelatte in the lower Rhône valley and a waste processing plant at La Hague, near Cherbourg.
At the beginning of the 21st century, renewable energy sources, such as solar energy and wind energy, gained new importance. Although wind power produced less than 3 percent of the electricity consumed in France in 2010, the country’s “wind potential” was the second largest in Europe, and new plants are planned in accordance with the EU’s renewable energy directives. In addition, France’s installed solar capacity increased by nearly 700 percent between 2009 and 2011, and its 2.5 gigawatts of generation represented nearly 4 percent of the world’s total. Open Access Policy Institutional Open Access Program Guidelines for Special Issues Editorial Process Research and Publication Ethics Article Processing Charges Awards Testimonials
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Wind Energy Research Laboratory, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 300, Allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, QC G5L 3A1, Canada
The Who, Why, What, When And How Of Sustainable Bordeaux
Received: 19 January 2022 / Revised: 8 February 2022 / Accepted: 18 February 2022 / Published: 21 February 2022
The energy efficiency of a system of renewable energy sources is inextricably linked to the energy storage technologies used together with it. The most widely used all-purpose energy storage technology is electrochemical storage batteries, which have become more popular over time due to their extended lifetime, high operating voltage, and low self-discharge rate. However, these batteries cannot withstand the very low temperatures encountered in cold regions, even with these very promising technical characteristics. Cold temperatures in the north affect the electromotive force of batteries and thus reduce their storage capacity. In addition, they affect the conductivity of the electrolyte and the kinetics of electrochemical reactions, thereby affecting the capacity and speed of electrons in the electrolyte. In this article, which is intended as a literature review, we first describe the technical characteristics of charge and discharge rates of various electrochemical storage techniques and their variation with temperature. New approaches used to adapt these electrochemical storage techniques to cold climates are then presented. We are also conducting a comparative study between different electrochemical storage techniques regarding their performance in the harsh climate of the Canadian North.
Renewable energy; Energy storage systems; batteries; cold northern temperatures; storage capacity; kinetics; method of adaptation; container solutions for batteries
World energy consumption is still largely dependent on non-renewable energy sources, with a rate of around 90% in 2017, as shown in Figure 1 . Oil is still the most used, with an estimated annual consumption of 4 Gt.
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The situation in Quebec is much better, as 44% of Quebec’s energy balance comes from renewable energy sources  – this is one of the highest in the world, well above the global average of 10% . The production of electricity from fully renewable sources can explain this effect (ie 200 TWh from hydroelectricity and wind energy). Electricity and biofuels meet 35% and 9% of Quebec’s energy needs, respectively
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