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The Role Of Renewable Energy In Marseille: Sustainable And Profitable Options
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Enviroscore: Normalization, Weighting, And Categorization Algorithm To Evaluate The Relative Environmental Impact Of Food And Drink Products
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Papadakis C. Nikolaos Papadakis C. Nikolaos Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1, * , Fafalakis Marios Fafalakis Marios Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar 1 and Katsaprakakis Dimitris Katsaprakakis Dimitris Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar * 1, 2,
Msc Sustainable Energy Futures
Received: May 14, 2023 / Revised: May 30, 2023 / Accepted: May 31, 2023 / Published: June 4, 2023
With the increasing global demand for sustainable energy sources and the ever-increasing generation of renewable energy, efficient energy storage systems are essential to ensure grid stability and reliability. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of pumped sump (PHS) systems, a proven and mature technology that has attracted considerable interest in recent years. This study covers the basic principles, design considerations, and various configurations of PHS systems, including open, closed, and hybrid designs. Furthermore, the review highlights the important role of PHS systems in integrating renewable energy sources, reducing peak demand and improving grid stability. It also provides an in-depth analysis of current and emerging trends, technical challenges, environmental impacts, and cost-effectiveness, and identifies potential areas for future research and development. The paper concludes by offering a perspective on the challenges and opportunities facing PHS systems, highlighting their potential to make important contributions to a sustainable and reliable energy future.
The global energy landscape is undergoing significant change as societies move towards more sustainable and low-carbon energy systems. This shift is driven by a growing awareness of the need to mitigate climate change, reduce dependence on fossil fuels, and ensure energy security. At the heart of this transition is the increased use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. However, these sources are often intermittent , which makes it difficult to provide stable and uninterrupted supply of electricity to end users, as well as the stability of the grid. In addition, the interdependence of water, energy and land has become increasingly important in the context of sustainable development, as the UN Sustainable Development Goals emphasize the need to optimize these interactions to minimize negative social and economic impacts. requirements [2, 3, 4]. Pumped storage (PHS) systems (also known as pumped storage systems—PHS) are a viable response to these challenges, offering an effective solution for energy storage, renewable energy integration, and grid stability. many SDGs.
Basically, a pumped water storage system is a large-scale reversible energy storage technology that uses the potential energy of water to store and release electricity. Using the simple principle of converting electrical energy into potential energy and vice versa, PHS systems are a vital component of modern energy networks, helping to balance supply and demand and facilitate the integration of renewable energy sources. Figure 1 shows a typical schematic of a networked PHS system.
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In recent years, pumped hydro storage systems (PHS) have accounted for 3% of the world’s total installed electricity generation capacity and 99% of electricity storage capacity, making them the most widely used mechanical storage systems . . The following example illustrates the position of pumped storage systems among other energy storage solutions. In 2019, PHS systems accounted for 93% of utility-scale storage capacity and more than 99% of electricity storage in the United States (estimated energy storage capacity was 553 GWh). By contrast, by the end of 2019, all other types of energy storage projects, including batteries, flywheels, solar thermal power, natural gas with compressed air energy storage, had a combined capacity of just 1.6 GW. 1.75 GWh with energy storage capacity. These data highlight the importance of pumped reservoir systems in the United States in terms of energy capacity and energy storage capacity .
However, these systems have their own challenges that must be taken into account. One important challenge is the need for suitable geological formations for storage reservoirs. These reservoirs need to allow for significant changes in water levels to store large amounts of water and energy. In common areas, storage reservoirs create significant land demands that increase evaporation rates and increase capital costs for relatively small amounts of water and energy storage. In addition, the development of PHS projects can face challenges related to environmental and social impacts, technical limitations in turbine and pump design and operation, and the need for large upfront investments. In order to overcome these challenges and unlock the full potential of PHS as a viable response to renewable energy integration and grid sustainability, a thorough assessment of site-specific conditions is essential; Investing in research and development to advance technological innovation; and fostering collaboration among stakeholders to address environmental, social, and economic challenges.
Pumped water reservoirs are a proven technology suitable for utility-scale electricity storage and have been used since 1890 in the region between Switzerland and Italy [ 8 , 9 ]. In 1929, North America’s first PHS system was installed on the Housatonic River in Connecticut. The world’s first commercial PHS system was the Pedreira Power Plant in Cubao/SP, Brazil, which began operation in 1939.
The early use of PHS plants was influenced by favorable geographical conditions and the abundant water resources available in those regions. To be viable, PHS plants require specific site conditions such as high head, advantageous topography, suitable geotechnical conditions, access to power grids, and water availability. The first PHS plants were built in Alpine regions such as Switzerland and Austria, which are characterized by convenient geographical locations with abundant water resources .
Harnessing The Wind At Sea
The chronological development of PHS in many countries from the late 1960s to the late 1980s was driven by energy security concerns following the oil crisis of the early 1970s and the rise of nuclear power. PHS development was slow until the 1960s, but after the oil crisis, the search for reliable energy alternatives led to a significant increase in the construction of PHS plants. As PHS is closely linked to nuclear development, this has been particularly evident in countries seeking to ensure energy security and promote the growth of nuclear power.
To complement high-inertia nuclear power plants and provide fast response, PHS plants have been built in various countries, including the United States and Japan. This strong correlation between NPP development and NPP development in the United States and Japan illustrates how PHS provided important support for these facilities. Meanwhile, countries such as Austria, which do not have nuclear facilities in Europe but have rich hydro topography, have mainly developed PHS to increase the operation and efficiency of large-scale hydropower plants [ 10 , 11 ].
The development of new PHS plants declined in the 1990s, primarily due to increasing environmental concerns and a lack of suitable sites . Fewer facilities were built during this period as the most cost-effective locations became saturated and the growth of nuclear development declined. However, since 2000, the landscape has changed with renewed interest in PHS due to increased demand for renewable energy sources and the liberalization of electricity markets. This change led to the development of several large PHS plants in Europe, such as the 1,060 MW Goldisthal in Germany and the 450 MW Kopswerk II in Austria, as countries sought to diversify their energy portfolios and integrate renewable energy sources. [8, 10, 12].
Finally, a brief historical overview of PHS systems shows their importance and versatility as they have been adapted to different drivers and technologies over the years. In the first place, support the development of nuclear power and solve the problem of energy security, PHS
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