“the Role Of Renewable Energy In Shaping The Future Of Gas And Electricity” – Human activities are responsible for almost all of the increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere over the last 150 years.

Scientists attribute the global warming trend observed since the mid-20th century to what is commonly known as the “greenhouse effect” – a phenomenon that results when gases in the atmosphere trap heat radiating from the Earth, and make the planet warmer. Gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include water vapor, carbon, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone

“the Role Of Renewable Energy In Shaping The Future Of Gas And Electricity”

The largest source of greenhouse gas emissions from human activities is from the burning of fossil fuels for energy (electricity and heat production). In contrast, renewable energy sources produce little or no global warming emissions. With climate change concerns on the rise, the global economy is making an increasing effort to move away from greenhouse gas-emitting fossil fuels and towards cleaner, renewable energy sources.

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(IPCC 2014) based on global emissions from 2010. Details of the sources included in these estimates can be found in the Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

Renewables continue their progression into the driver’s seat of electricity markets as utilities and regulators prefer to replace retiring capacity, and as customer preferences shift towards cost savings and climate change concerns.

Renewable energy is produced using natural resources that are constantly replaced and never run out. Because there are many natural sources of energy, there are many renewable energy technologies. Historical renewable energy production was dominated by traditional biomass – burning wood, forestry materials and agricultural waste biomass. Today, traditional biofuels remain the largest source of renewable energies, accounting for 60-70 percent of the total.

Globally, the world produced about 5.9 terawatt hours (TWh) of modern renewable energy in 2016, a 5- to 6-fold increase since the 1960s. From 2012 to 2017, the global economy spent a staggering 1.5 trillion US dollars to add 1 million megawatts (MW) of new renewable energy capacity. As a result of that investment, there was enough renewable electricity generating capacity to meet 24% of world energy demand in 2017.

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For the first time, in April 2019, renewable energy surpassed coal by providing 23 percent of US power generation, compared to coal’s 20 percent share. And in the first half of 2019, wind and solar combined accounted for about 50 percent of total US renewable electricity generation, replacing the dominance of hydropower.

Corporations Have Already Purchased Record Volumes of Clean Energy in 2018, and It’s No Anomaly. August 2018, BloombergNEF (BNEF). https://about.bnef.com/blog/corporations-already-purchased-record-clean-energy-volumes-2018-not-anomaly/

US monthly electricity generation from selected sources (Jan 2005-Apr 2019) (source: Oliver Milman, US generates more electricity from renewables than coal for first time, Guardian, October

This is just the tip of the proverbial renewable energy iceberg. Developed countries will need to spend US$ 11 trillion in the coming decades to become 100% powered by renewable sources; a significant market opportunity for companies operating in the renewable energy sector. Of the six super oil majors – BP, Shell, Chevron, Total, Eni and Exxon – many of them have invested heavily in renewable energies, such as wind and solar, as they seek to transition towards sources of cleaner energy.

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Equally exciting are technologies that allow energy to be produced day and night, thus strengthening the electricity grid. This includes battery storage, as well as smart technology that can help predict precisely when and where electricity is needed. Although there are many scenarios for the transition to a low-emission economy, technological development and innovation in renewable energy seem to be part of almost every scenario.

Falling costs and rising capacity factors of renewable energy sources, together with increasing competitiveness of battery storage have begun to add value to renewables, making them competitive in comparison with traditional energy sources.

Renewable Energy Industry Outlook 2020: Mid-year update – Exploring renewable energy trends and the impact of COVID-19, November 2019, Deloitte. https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/us/Documents/energy-resources/us-2020-renewable-energymidyear-outlook.pdf

Paul Brockway, Anne Owen, Lina Brand-Correa, Lukas Hardt. Estimating the global end-stage energy return on investment for fossil fuels compared to renewable energy sources, Nature Energy, July 2019. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41560 -019-0425-z

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Methane is a hydrocarbon gas produced through both natural sources and human activities, including the decomposition of waste in landfills, agriculture, and especially rice cultivation, as well as ruminant digestion and management of manure associated with domestic livestock.

Methane is produced from the breakdown of organic matter in the landfill. That organic matter would break down anyway, and its carbon would return to the environment and be reabsorbed by growing plants at some point in the future. It was already part of the natural carbon cycle. Therefore, it is different to CO2 from fossil fuels, which comes from the mining of carbon-based materials that have been removed from the natural carbon cycle tens or even hundreds of millions of years ago.

This participation in the natural carbon cycle means that the decay of waste, slowly and naturally by microbes, or quickly by combustion, makes it a source of renewable energy. This production of energy from waste is the transformative power of Energy from Waste (EfW) technology.

The biogenic content of waste — the renewable organic waste from the kitchen and other residues from food processing and restaurants — can all be used to produce energy in a renewable and sustainable way.

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“With growing concerns about the impact of industry and agriculture on global greenhouse gas emissions and the environment in general, biogas is rapidly emerging as the most ‘attractive, affordable and logical waste management available’

Waste to energy (WtE) or energy from waste (EfW) is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste, or the processing waste into a fuel source. WtE is a form of energy recovery. This can help offset the increasing energy demand from an increasingly urban population with higher living standards. Furthermore, since the waste is from domestic sources, EfW supports the diversification of the energy supply.

Best practice energy recovery, compared to landfills, can also deliver both sanitary and environmental benefits. EfW technology considerably reduces the volume of waste produced, so EfW facilities require much less land area than landfill sites do. Furthermore, waste disposal sites in many countries do not meet the sanitary standards of landfills by completely isolating the waste from the surrounding environment.

Waste to energy or energy from waste is the process of generating energy in the form of electricity and/or heat from the primary treatment of waste.

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Most people who follow renewable energy have heard of biogas by now, but the origin and uses of biogas are still a mystery to many. The microorganisms that create biogas are among the oldest forms of life on earth, more than three billion years older than the plants and animals that became today’s fossil fuels.

Biogas is produced after organic materials (plant and animal products) are broken down by bacteria in an oxygen-free environment, a process called anaerobic digestion. Biogas systems use anaerobic digestion to recycle these organic materials, turning them into biogas, which contains both energy (gas), and valuable soil products (liquids and solids).

Biogas is a clean and renewable energy that is created from materials that would otherwise simply be wasted. It can reduce energy greenhouse gas emissions by more than 20 times and prevent methane from escaping directly into the atmosphere.

Biogas combustion is considered carbon neutral (it generates no net carbon dioxide) and can be used to replace fossil fuels for electricity and heat generation. As the organic material grows, it is converted and used. Then it grows again in a cycle that repeats continuously.

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The carbon in biogas is called biogenic carbon. Unlike fossil fuels, which release carbon from a long past geological era into the present atmosphere, biogenic carbon is part of the natural biosphere. The same amount of carbon would be released if the organic matter was allowed to decompose naturally in the environment. We emit biogenic carbon every few seconds.

In addition to climate benefits, anaerobic digestion can reduce costs associated with waste remediation as well as benefit local economies.

Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy-efficient method for industrial wastewater treatment. It uses anaerobic bacteria (biomass) to convert organic pollutants or COD (chemical oxygen demand) into biogas in an oxygen-free environment. Anaerobic microorganisms (specific to oxygen-free conditions) are selected for their ability to degrade organic matter present in industrial effluents, converting organic pollutants into biogas (methane + carbon dioxide) and a small amount of biosolids. The energy-rich biogas can then be used for boiler feed and/or combined heat and power (CHP) to produce ‘green’ electricity and heat.

Anaerobic digestion also reduces odors, pathogens, and the risk of water pollution from livestock waste. In addition, a liquid by-product resulting from the anaerobic digestion process (called the ‘digestate’) is a high-quality, nitrogen-rich fertilizer and soil amendment for urban farming or local agriculture, which reduces the need for chemical fertilizers while providing additional income. .

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Biogas is about 20% lighter than air and has an ignition temperature in the range of 650 to 750 degrees Celsius (1,200-1,380 degrees Fahrenheit). It is an odorless and colorless gas that burns with a light blue flame similar to that of natural gas.

Due to the complexity of the bioconversion processes, many factors can affect the performances of an anaerobic digester. Among the operating conditions, temperature and pH are the most important parameters, as they are

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