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How The Trans Tasman Bubble Will Work

Comparing the impact of road networks on the severity of COVID-19 between Delta and Omicron variants: a study based on the suburbs of Greater Sydney (Australia).

Shahadat Uddin Shahadat Uddin Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar * , Haohui Lu Haohui Lu Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar , Arif Khan Arif Khan Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar , Shakir Karim Shakir Karim Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar Scilit Preprints.org Google Scholar

Received: 10 March 2022 / Revised: 9 May 2022 / Accepted: 25 May 2022 / Published: 27 May 2022

Omicron and delta variants of COVID-19 have recently become the most dominant virus strains worldwide. A recent study by Delta Variant found that a suburban road network provides a reliable proxy for human mobility to explore the severity of COVID-19. This study first examined the impact of road networks on the severity of COVID-19 for the Omicron variant using transmission and road connectivity data from Greater Sydney, Australia. We then compare the results of this study with a recent study that used transmission data of the delta variant for the same region. In the road network analysis, we used four centrality measures (degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector) and the coreness measure. We constructed two multiple linear regression models for delta and omicron variants using the same set of independent and dependent variables. Only the eigenvector for the Omicron variant is a statistically significant predictor for the severity of COVID-19. On the other hand, both degree and eigenvectors are statistically significant predictors of delta variance, as found in recent studies considered for comparison. We found a statistical difference (p < 0.05) between the R-squared values ​​for these two multiple linear regression models. Our findings indicate an important difference in the transmission nature of delta and omicron variants, which may provide practical insights for understanding their infectious nature and developing appropriate control strategies accordingly.

Tracking The Covid 19 Pandemic In Australia Using Genomics

Two years after the first reported coronavirus case, the total number of confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide has exceeded 260 million [1]. Recently, a road-network-based approach was used to analyze transmissibility [2]. In that study, the severity of Covid-19 and the vulnerability of each suburb were assessed using a centralization system from a network constructed with suburbs as nodes and roads between suburbs as edges. It was found that the degree centrality of this suburban road network was a strong and statistically significant predictor of both vulnerability and severity [2]. As a result, studying road networks can help researchers better understand the degree of contagion and severity of deltas and omicrons. However, no comparison was made between the impact levels of this suburban road network on the two forms. Hence, this study aims to bridge this gap by using the same network and attempts to quantify any differences, if any.

Since the beginning of July 2021, new confirmed COVID-19 cases have exceeded three million per week worldwide, reaching a peak of 23.25 million in mid-January 2022 and currently (May 2022) down to four million [3]. This indicates that the original severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its many variants, including delta and omicron, are still being transmitted to a large extent between different hosts and species [4]. Although some scholars predict that this epidemic will end soon [5], it is still very important that SARS-CoV-2 and its variants are spreading widely throughout the population worldwide, especially considering the highly infectious nature of the recent Delta and Omicron variants. . This study focuses on these two forms and the effects of the road network on their transmission in the greater Sydney, Australia region.

The delta variant has caused a new significant infection wave worldwide, jeopardizing the efforts to eradicate COVID-19 and threatening the fate of humanity [1]. The delta variant has spread to almost every country since its first detection in October 2020 and has emerged as the most common circulating variant in newly confirmed COVID-19 cases worldwide [6]. There is currently little evidence that the transmission channels of delta variants have changed substantially. However, it has been critically demonstrated that the delta variant is much more transmissible than the original SARS-CoV-2 strain [7] and the delta variant is predicted to be 60% more transmissible than the alpha variant, which was already highly infectious [8]. Researchers are also trying to uncover the biological reasons why the delta variant works the way it does. It has been suggested that patients with the delta variant have significantly more viral particles in their airways [9]. According to Lee et al. [10], the mean oropharyngeal swab viral load of delta-infected individuals was approximately 1260 times higher than that of cases infected with the original SARS-CoV-2. Bjorkman et al. [11] also found that viral load is strongly correlated with the transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2.

Omicron, on the other hand, has identified the variant as a super ‘variant of concern’ by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to infectious and vaccine-escape mutations. The spike protein, which is the main antigenic target of antibodies produced by infection or vaccination, has 32 mutations in this variant [12]. Mutations in the spike (S) protein receptor-binding region of SARS-CoV-2 variants determine severe infectivity and antibody resistance. Presenting a comprehensive quantitative analysis of Omicron infectivity, vaccine progress, and antibody resistance, it was discovered that Omicron is ten times more infectious than the original virus, or about 2.8 times more infectious than the delta variant, and that Omicron can be an infectious. 88% chance of avoiding current vaccines. [12]. Therefore, the arrival of the Omicron variant has caused significant concern and researchers are trying to investigate the extent to which this new variety may endanger existing vaccines [13, 14]. However, in general, it is almost impossible to fully characterize the full effect of Omicron’s S protein mutations in current vaccines in the world population due to various reasons, such as, different immunological responses, different factors influencing antibody production and even statistical model reasons. Experimental settings.

Covid 19 World Map: Cases, Deaths And Global Trends

In addition to virus characteristics, other factors have also been studied to verify the transmissibility of COVID-19 variants. It has been found that there is a negative correlation between infection and temperature or humidity, but a positive correlation between recovery and these two factors [15]. Some academics have also uncovered a U-shaped relationship between outdoor UV exposure and weak positive associations with atmospheric pressure, wind speed, precipitation, daily temperature, SO.

, and ozone [16]. There is no correlation between infectious viral titers (IVTs) and age or gender [9]. Previously, we found that road networks influence the severity and vulnerability of COVID-19 to delta variants. In this study, we investigate the hypothesis for the Omicron variant and explore the difference in the spread pattern between these two variants.

For this study, we considered data from 19 local government areas (LGAs) in Greater Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These 19 LGAs have 137 postal areas. Google Maps was used to extract road connections between suburbs. Infection data were taken from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) [17]. We considered transmission data for five weeks starting from 16 June 2021 for the delta variant. This study evaluated only one week of data for the Omicron variant starting on 2 February 2022. Delta cases have been reported only by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ) test, conducted in various health care facilities. Omicron cases have been reported based on both PCR and home-based rapid antigen tests (RATs). There were inconsistencies in the timing of RAT result reports

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