What Ideas Did Isaac Newton Contribute To The Scientific Revolution – Isaac Newton was a physicist and mathematician who developed the principles of modern physics, including the laws of motion and is credited as one of the great minds of the 17th century scientific revolution.

, which has been called the single most influential book on physics. In 1705 he was knighted by Queen Anne of England, making him Sir Isaac Newton.

What Ideas Did Isaac Newton Contribute To The Scientific Revolution

What Ideas Did Isaac Newton Contribute To The Scientific Revolution

Newton was born on 4 January 1643 in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England. With the “Old” Julian calendar, Newton’s date of birth is sometimes shown as December 25, 1642.

Newton (sir Isaac)

Newton was the only son of a prosperous local farmer, also called Isaac, who died three months before he was born. A premature baby who was born small and weak, Newton was not expected to survive.

When he was 3 years old, his mother, Hannah Ayscough Newton, remarried a wealthy minister, Barnabas Smith, and went to live with him, leaving young Newton with his grandmother.

The experience left an indelible mark on Newton, which later manifested as an acute sense of insecurity. He was restlessly obsessed with his published work and defended its merits with irrational behavior.

At the age of 12, Newton was reunited with his mother after her second husband died. She brought her three young children from her second marriage.

How To Be Smarter Than Isaac Newton

Newton was enrolled at the King’s School in Grantham, a town in Lincolnshire, where he lodged with a local apothecary and was introduced to the fascinating world of chemistry.

His mother pulled him out of school at the age of 12. Her plan was to make him a farmer and let him run the farm. Newton failed miserably, as he found farming monotonous. Newton was soon sent back to King’s School to finish his basic education.

Perhaps sensing the young man’s innate intellectual abilities, his uncle, a graduate of the University of Cambridge’s Trinity College, persuaded Newton’s mother to let him enter university. Newton enrolled in a work-study-like program in 1661, and thereafter waited tables and tended the rooms of wealthier students.

What Ideas Did Isaac Newton Contribute To The Scientific Revolution

When Newton arrived at Cambridge, the scientific revolution of the 17th century was already in full force. The heliocentric view of the universe – theorized by astronomers Nicolaus Copernicus and Johannes Kepler, and later refined by Galileo – was well known in most European academic circles.

Isaac Newton’s Universal Language

The philosopher René Descartes had begun to formulate a new concept of nature as an intricate, impersonal and inert machine. Yet, like most universities in Europe, Cambridge was steeped in Aristotelian philosophy and a view of nature that rested on a geocentric view of the universe, dealing with nature in qualitative rather than quantitative terms.

During his first three years at Cambridge, Newton was taught the standard curriculum but was fascinated by the more advanced science. All his spare time was spent reading from the modern philosophers. The result was a less than stellar performance, but one that is understandable given his dual course of study.

It was during this time that Newton kept a second set of notes, entitled “Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae” (“Some Philosophical Questions”). “Quaestiones” reveals that Newton had discovered the new concept of nature that provided the framework for the scientific revolution. Although Newton graduated without honors or awards, his efforts earned him the title of Scholar and four years of financial support for future education.

By 1665, the bubonic plague that was ravaging Europe had reached Cambridge, forcing the university to close. After a two-year break, Newton returned to Cambridge in 1667 and was elected a minor at Trinity College, as he was still not considered a distinguished scholar.

Isaac Newton: Life And Discoveries Of The Great British Scientist

In the following years his fortunes improved. Newton received his Master of Arts degree in 1669, before he was 27. During this time, he came across Nicholas Mercator’s published book on methods for dealing with infinite series.

, expounding his own more comprehensive results. He shared this with friend and mentor Isaac Barrow, but did not include his name as the author.

In June 1669, Barrow shared the unaccredited manuscript with the British mathematician John Collins. In August 1669, Barrow identified its author to Collins as “Mr. Newton … very young … but of extraordinary genius and skill in these things.”

What Ideas Did Isaac Newton Contribute To The Scientific Revolution

Newton’s work was noticed by the mathematics community for the first time. Shortly afterwards, Barrow resigned his Lucasian professorship at Cambridge, and Newton assumed the chair.

Isaac Newton’s Empiricist Philosophy Of Science

Newton made discoveries in optics, motion and mathematics. Newton theorized that white light was a composite of all the colors in the spectrum, and that light was composed of particles.

, contains information on almost every essential concept of physics except energy, which ultimately helps him explain the laws of motion and the theory of gravity. Along with mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, Newton is credited with developing important theories of calculus.

Newton’s first major public scientific achievement was the design and construction of a reflecting telescope in 1668. As a professor at Cambridge, Newton was required to deliver an annual course of lectures and chose optics as his first subject. He used his telescope to study optics and help prove his theory of light and color.

The Royal Society requested a demonstration of his reflecting telescope in 1671, and the organization’s interest encouraged Newton to publish his Notes on Light, Optics, and Color in 1672. These notes were later published as part of Newton’s

Newton’s Year Of Wonders: How Isaac Newton Spent A Year In Quarantine And Changed The World With His Discoveries

Sir Isaac Newton was considering gravity, as the famous story goes, when he saw an apple fall in his orchard, circa 1665.

Between 1665 and 1667, Newton returned home from Trinity College to continue his private studies, as the school was closed due to the Great Plague. Legend has it that at this time Newton experienced his famous inspiration of gravity with the falling apple. According to this common myth, Newton was sitting under an apple tree when a fruit fell and hit him on the head, inspiring him to suddenly come up with the theory of gravity.

Although there is no evidence that the apple actually hit Newton in the head, he did see an apple fall from a tree, which made him wonder why it fell straight down and not at an angle. Accordingly, he began to explore the theories of motion and gravitation.

What Ideas Did Isaac Newton Contribute To The Scientific Revolution

It was during this 18-month hiatus as a student that Newton gained many of his most important insights—including the method of infinitesimal calculus, the foundations of his theory of light and color, and the laws of planetary motion—which eventually led to the publication of his physics book

Isaac Newton (1642–1727)

Said to be the single most influential book on physics and possibly all of science. Its publication immediately catapulted Newton to international prominence.

Force equals mass times acceleration, and a change in motion (ie, change in velocity) is proportional to the force applied.

Helped him arrive at his theory of gravity. Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that two objects attract each other with a gravitational force proportional to their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

These laws helped explain not only elliptical planetary orbits but almost all other motions in the universe: how the planets are held in orbit by the Sun’s gravity; how the Moon orbits the Earth and Jupiter’s moons orbit it; and how comets orbit the Sun in elliptical orbits.

Isaac Newton Close Reading Comprehension Activities

They also allowed him to calculate the mass of each planet, calculate the flattening of the Earth at the poles and the bulge at the equator, and how the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon creates the Earth’s tides. According to Newton’s story, gravity kept the universe in balance, made it work, and brought heaven and earth together in one great equation.

. Among the dissenters was Robert Hooke, one of the original members of the Royal Academy and a scientist trained in a number of fields, including mechanics and optics.

While Newton theorized that light was made up of particles, Hooke believed that it was made up of waves. Hooke quickly condemned Newton’s paper in condescending terms, attacking Newton’s methodology and conclusions.

What Ideas Did Isaac Newton Contribute To The Scientific Revolution

Hooke was not the only one to question Newton’s work in optics. The famous Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens and a number of French Jesuits also objected. But because of Hooke’s connection with the Royal Society and his own work in optics, his criticism stung Newton the most.

The Ideas That Formed The Constitution, Part 17: Sir Isaac Newton

Unable to handle the criticism, he became enraged – a reaction to criticism that would continue throughout his life. Newton denied Hooke’s charge that his theories had any flaws and argued for the importance of his discoveries to all science.

Over the following months, the exchange between the two men intensified and soon Newton threatened to leave the Royal Society altogether. He only stopped when several other members assured him that the fellows held him in high regard.

The rivalry between Newton and Hooke would continue for years thereafter. Then, in 1678, Newton suffered a complete nervous breakdown and the correspondence ended abruptly. His mother’s death the following year caused him to become even more isolated, and for six years he withdrew from intellectual exchange except when others initiated correspondence, which he always kept short.

During his hiatus from public life, Newton returned to his study of gravity and its effects

Reinterpreting Newton And Religion

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