What Part Of The Brain Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect – An experimental drug for the most severe form of multiple sclerosis has slowed brain shrinkage by nearly half.

There are dozens of therapies approved for the relapsing form of MS, a disease of the nervous system, in which people can be symptom-free for months before another attack. But there is very little for people who suffer from more severe forms of the disease – known as primary progressive and secondary progressive MS and where there is rarely any respite from disabling symptoms.

What Part Of The Brain Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect

What Part Of The Brain Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect

A clinical trial has now published its results, showing that the drug ibudilast slowed brain shrinkage in progressive…

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1 Record broken for coldest temperature ever reached by large molecules 2 The gold hydrogen rush: Does Earth contain nearly unlimited clean fuel? 3 Modern humans were in northern Europe 45,000 years ago 4 CRISPR gene therapy appears to cure dangerous inflammatory condition 5 AI can better retain what it learns by mimicking human sleep 6 A bold new insight into quantum theory may reveal how truth unfolds 7 Mammoth tusk tools may have been used to make ropes 37,000 years ago 8 Can a blood sugar monitor really help boost your health? 9 US Congress grills Big Tech leaders over child safety online 10 What we know about the stars where NASA will search for alien life In MS, the body’s immune system attacks the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. Experts don’t know what causes MS, but they have identified trends in who gets it.

In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the brain and spinal cord nerve coverings (myelin). This interferes with their ability to send signals to other parts of the body.

An autoimmune disease: Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease. This means that the immune system attacks the body’s own tissues. In MS, immune system cells attack myelin, the sheath that covers nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system).

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Myelin and sclerosis: Myelin is the sheath of fatty tissue that protects and insulates nerve fibers, like insulation around a wire. Myelin helps electrical signals travel along nerve fibers. Damage to myelin and nerve fibers is called demyelination. The scar tissue that results is called sclerosis.

Disrupted signals: Damage can slow or block the electrical signals that carry information between the central nervous system and the rest of the body. Which can cause problems with vision, movement, muscle strength, coordination and thinking.

Results vary: Symptoms and how quickly the disease worsens vary from patient to patient. Some people have few or mild symptoms. Some go months or years with little or no symptoms. For others, MS becomes disabling. MS is incurable, but treatments can slow the disease and manage symptoms. Most patients can expect a normal life expectancy.

What Part Of The Brain Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect

How common is MS? A 2017 study surveyed more than 900,000 U.S. adults. with MS, more than twice previous estimates. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has launched a system to gather data on neurologic conditions, starting with MS and Parkinson’s disease.

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Age: MS is most often diagnosed in people between the ages of 20 and 50, although it can occur in younger and older people.

Gender: MS is two to three times more common in women. Research suggests that hormones may play a role.

Race/ethnicity: MS occurs in almost all ethnic groups, but it is more common in white people with Northern European ancestry.

Genetics: Scientists do not fully understand the genetic pattern in MS. It is not directly inherited, but the risk is higher in people who have a close relative (parent, sibling) with MS.

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Geography: MS is more common in areas furthest from the equator. But not everyone in the same area is equally at risk. Some groups living very far north – the Inuit of the North American Arctic, for example – rarely develop MS.

Experts don’t yet know what causes MS. They suspect it’s a complex combination of factors. For example, an infection can trigger a genetic predisposition to MS. Or MS may be linked to an immune system problem or an environmental cause.

Because MS affects the nerves that send signals throughout the body, symptoms can be wide-ranging. (Click image to see larger.)

What Part Of The Brain Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect

Multiple sclerosis can cause many symptoms that may come and go. You may have some symptoms but not all.

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MS experts now consider there to be four types (or courses) of MS, including an incipient one. Everyone is different, but everyone has times when the pain:

This is the first stage of symptoms caused by inflammation and damage to myelin. The episode lasts at least 24 hours. This may be a sign that a person will develop MS.

If an MRI scan finds brain lesions like those found in MS, the patient will likely get a diagnosis of MS. If no lesions are found, a diagnosis of MS is unlikely.

About 85 percent of people with MS are initially diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS. In this type, patients have clear attacks of new or worsening symptoms that last for days, weeks or months.

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Attacks are followed by periods of partial or complete recovery that may last months or years. Sometimes the symptoms go away. Other times, some symptoms remain and become permanent. The disease does not appear to worsen during remissions.

About 15 percent of people with MS have this type, with symptoms that get worse over time from the beginning. Later, patients with PPMS may have relapses with rapid worsening of symptoms, followed by some recovery.

Most people with relapsing-remitting MS eventually develop SPMS. In this type, symptoms worsen over time. People with secondary progressive MS may also have relapses followed by some recovery.

What Part Of The Brain Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect

Many conditions are similar to multiple sclerosis. Some, like MS, are demyelinating disorders, meaning the body attacks and destroys the myelin sheath around the nerves. These include: This article has been reviewed according to ScienceX’s editorial process and policies. The editors highlighted the following qualities while ensuring the credibility of the content:

The Neurological Maze Of Multiple Sclerosis

Between 30% and 50% of people living with multiple sclerosis (MS) will experience memory problems, but the cause is uncertain. Brain lesions are the hallmark imaging sign used to diagnose MS and are often associated with memory dysfunction. However, increased MS brain lesions are not specific to memory problems, and are also associated with fatigue, difficulty walking and other common MS symptoms. Previous studies that have attempted to map the anatomy of lesions associated with memory problems in MS have led to conflicting results.

Researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital conducted a study to find out which MS lesion locations were associated with memory issues. The team, led by Isaiah Kletenik, MD, analyzed imaging and cognitive data from 431 people with MS enrolled in the Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of MS at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, or CLIMB study. The researchers mapped the locations of white matter lesions from each person and tested associations between memory dysfunction and a memory circuit previously derived from strokes that cause memory problems.

They found that MS lesions associated with memory problems intersected this memory circuit centered in the hippocampus. The researchers also compared MS lesion locations to large functional and structural brain atlases to identify distinct MS memory circuits.

“In many neurologic diseases, we know what brain function will be disrupted based on the location of the lesions, but in MS, the lesions are widespread making localization challenging,” Kletenik said. “By applying a circuit-based approach, we show that the lesions associated with MS memory dysfunction connect to a memory circuit.”

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The team included researchers from the Brigham MS Center and from the Center for Brain Circuit Therapeutics led by Michael D. Fox, MD, Ph.D. Rohit Bakshi, MD, Bonnie Glanz, Ph.D., Charles Guttmann, MD, and Tanuja Chitnis, MD, collected neuroimaging and behavioral data in people with MS as part of a large, ongoing study in Brigham MS Center. Dr. Bakshi and Dr. Guttmann developed an imaging pipeline to automatically segment MS lesions and Dr. Glanz collaborated with MS Center staff to conduct cognitive testing for this study.

More information: Isaiah Kletenik et al, Multiple sclerosis lesions impair memory map in a connected memory circuit, Journal of Neurology (2023). DOI: 10.1007/s00415-023-11907-8

Citation: Brain lesions associated with memory loss in multiple sclerosis linked to common brain circuitry (2023, August 23) retrieved February 1, 2024 from https:///news/2023-08-brain- lesions-memory-loss-multiple.html

What Part Of The Brain Does Multiple Sclerosis Affect

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